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June 5, 2007, 0:08 AM CT

psychotherapy For Borderline personality disorder

psychotherapy For Borderline personality disorder
An intensive form of talk treatment, known as transference-focused psychotherapy (TFP), can help individuals affected with borderline personality disorder (BPD) by reducing symptoms and improving their social functioning, as per an article in the recent issue of the American Journal of Psychiatry, a premier psychiatry journal.

BPD, a chronic and disabling condition affecting about 1% of the United States population, has long defied psychology experts and psychiatry experts seeking to treat the illness. Affecting day-to-day functions, symptoms of the illness include unstable relations with others, pervasive mood instability, chaotic variation in self-image, self-destructive behavior, impulsive behaviors (such as sexual promiscuity, substance abuse, or gambling), and intense, uncontrolled rages.

In the new study, Mark F. Lenzenweger, distinguished professor of psychology at Binghamton University, State University of New York, and his colleagues at the Weill College of Medicine, Cornell University, examined three therapys applied to carefully diagnosed BPD patients for a period of one year.

The therapys included dialectical behavior treatment, supportive psychotherapy, and TFP, a specialized psychodynamic form of talk treatment, pioneered by Otto F. Kernberg, a co-author of study and professor of psychiatry at Weill-Cornell, that focuses on dominant emotionally charged themes that emerge in the relationship between patient and therapist.........

Posted by: JoAnn      Read more         Source


May 31, 2007, 11:47 PM CT

Improves recovery for elderly with depression

Improves recovery for elderly with depression
Adding a medicine to a standard therapy regimen for major depressive disorder in the elderly improves chances of recovery in those who do not adequately respond to the first-course treatment or who relapse from it, finds a University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine study reported in the recent issue of the American Journal of Psychiatry, the official journal of the American Psychiatric Association. Up to 84 percent of the elderly who experience depression either fail to respond to first-course therapy or relapse during the first six to 12 weeks of therapy.

The study observed that adding a second drug to the therapy of depressed participants over the age of 70 who either did not respond to initial therapy with the antidepressant paroxetine and interpersonal psychotherapy, or to those who responded to the initial therapy but quickly relapsed, caused the likelihood of recovery to rise from 40 percent to 60 percent. Recovery was slower in those who did not respond to the original therapy.

Depression should not be considered a normal part of aging. The scientific evidence is growing that there are many effective therapy options available for people of all ages, said Mary Amanda Dew, Ph.D., professor of psychiatry, psychology and epidemiology at the University of Pittsburgh and lead author of the study.........

Posted by: JoAnn      Read more         Source


May 31, 2007, 11:46 PM CT

Nursing Home Placement And Cognitive Decline in Alzheimer's Disease

Nursing Home Placement And Cognitive Decline in Alzheimer's Disease
People with Alzheimer's disease experience an acceleration in the rate of cognitive decline after being placed in a nursing home as per a new study by the Rush Alzheimer's Disease Center. The study, reported in the recent issue of the American Journal of Psychiatry, finds that previous experience in adult day care may lessen this association.

The observational study involved 432 older persons with Alzheimer's disease who were recruited from health care settings in the Chicago area. At baseline, they lived in the community and 196 participants were using day care services from 2 to 6 days a week for an overall mean of 1.7 days a week. At six month intervals for up to four years, they completed nine cognitive tests from which a composite measure of global cognition was derived.

On average, cognition declined at a gradually increasing rate for all participants. During the study period, 155 persons were placed in a nursing home, and placement was linked to a lower level of cognition and more rapid cognitive decline.

Study participants who had prior adult day care experience fared better. As level of day care use at study onset increased, the association of nursing home placement with accelerated cognitive decline substantially decreased. Having a parent with Alzheimer's means considering the level of care; some choices being, staying at home with you, assistance from an individual with an associate's nursing degree or even placement in a nursing home. Thus, people using day care 3 to 4 days a week at the beginning of the study showed no increase in cognitive decline upon nursing home placement.........

Posted by: JoAnn      Read more         Source


May 25, 2007, 7:28 PM CT

Both alcohol and neighborhood characteristics

Both alcohol and neighborhood characteristics
While heavy drinking has consistently been associated with an increased risk of intimate partner violence (IPV), a new study has observed that both drinking patterns and neighborhood characteristics can contribute in different ways to mutual IPV among married/cohabiting adults in the general population.

Results are reported in the recent issue of Alcoholism: Clinical & Experimental Research

The link between heavy drinking and increased risk of IPV is fairly well established, as per Carol B. Cunradi, senior research scientist at Prevention Research Center and sole author of the study. However, she noted, IPV scientists are increasingly examining the role of other factors that may exacerbate this link.

"Social disorganization theory, along with other macro-sociological theories, incorporate the larger environmental context of people's interactions within their neighborhood context into explanations of the conditions under which problem behaviors such as IPV may grow and thrive," explained Cunradi. "IPV, like child abuse, typically is a private event that occurs in the home; social disorganization theory suggests that it is essential to consider the neighborhood conditions in which the home is located".

"Eventhough a number of scientists and authors have speculated that neighborhood and community have an influence on behaviors such as IPV," added William Fals-Stewart, professor in the school of medicine at the University of Rochester, "this study is among the very first to examine IPV within the societal context of where it occurs. The way the authors described the neighborhoods in terms of social disorder and how these characteristics might, indeed, influence how drinking affects partner violence was novel and, to the best of my knowledge, the issue has not been looked at this way before."........

Posted by: JoAnn      Read more         Source


May 23, 2007, 10:02 PM CT

In utero exposure to smoking and risk of ADHD

In utero exposure to smoking and risk of ADHD
Women smokers who become pregnant have long been encouraged to reduce or eliminate their nicotine intake. A new study being reported in the June 15th issue of Biological Psychiatry provides further reason to do so, as it presents new evidence that in utero exposure to smoking is linked to attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) problems in genetically susceptible children.

The study investigated male and female twin pairs, aged 719 years, to assess the relationship between genetic variations, prenatal substance exposures, and ADHD sub-types. Rosalind Neuman, Ph.D., one of the studys authors, explains the findings: "When genetic factors are combined with prenatal cigarette smoke exposure, the ADHD risk rises very significantly. When the child has either or both of two specific forms of dopamine pathway genes (DAT and DRD4), and was exposed to cigarette smoking in utero, the risk for having combined type ADHD (a number of inattention and hyperactive/impulsive symptoms) increased 3 to 9 fold".

John H. Krystal, M.D., Editor of Biological Psychiatry and affiliated with both Yale University School of Medicine and the VA Connecticut Healthcare System, adds, "These data highlight a new risk of maternal smoking, increasing the risk for ADHD in their children. ADHD, in turn, increases the risk for substance abuse. Thus, it appears that in utero exposure to nicotine may help to perpetuate a cycle across generations that links addiction and behavioral problems".........

Posted by: Emily      Read more         Source


May 23, 2007, 10:01 PM CT

Psychological bullying hits just as hard

Psychological bullying hits just as hard
School bullying doesn't have to leave physical bumps and bruises to contribute to a hostile and potentially dangerous school environment. Behavior that intentionally harms another individual, through the manipulation of social relationships (or 'relational aggression'), is just as significant a concern for adolescent psychosocial development and mental health, as per Dr. Sara Goldstein from Montclair State University and her colleagues from the University of Michigan.

Their study[1], published this month in Springer's Journal of Youth and Adolescence, shows that adolescents exposed to high levels of relational aggression perceive their school to be less safe, and are less pleased with the general social atmosphere of the school. Adolescent boys who are exposed to relational aggression are also more likely to carry a weapon to school. This is not the case for girls.

A total of 1,335 African American and European American adolescents, aged 11 - 19 years, from a public school district in Detroit, Michigan, took part in an Internet survey which looked at how relational aggression at school is linked to adolescents' perceptions of, and participation in, a hostile school environment.

Respondents were asked about their direct experience of being victims of both relational aggression (e.g. How often in the last month have students told stories about you that were untrue? How often in the prior month did students not include you in joining in what they were doing?), and overt aggression. Respondents were also asked about their experience of witnessing both relational and overt aggression.........

Posted by: JoAnn      Read more         Source


May 23, 2007, 7:46 PM CT

Aripiprazole In Adolescents With Schizophrenia

Aripiprazole In Adolescents With Schizophrenia
In a six-week study in adolescents (13-17 years old) with schizophrenia, the Otsuka Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd. and Bristol-Myers Squibb Company (NYSE: BMY) atypical antipsychotic aripiprazole demonstrated significant improvement in comparison to placebo on the primary efficacy endpoint, Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) Total Score. In the findings first presented here at the 160th annual meeting of the American Psychiatric Association, approximately 85 percent of patients completed this six-week study. (1), (2) .

"Data on the management of schizophrenia in adolescents are limited," said Robert Findling, M.D., Director of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, University Hospitals Case Medical Center, Cleveland, Ohio. "The findings from this study contribute important new information about schizophrenia in adolescents."



Study Design and Findings


The findings are from a six-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study that reviewed the efficacy and safety of aripiprazole in adolescents, 13-17 years-old, with a primary diagnosis of schizophrenia. This study, sponsored by Otsuka Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd. and its U.S. subsidiary, Otsuka Pharmaceutical Development & Commercialization, Inc. (Princeton, NJ) was conducted at 101 centers in 13 countries with 302 ethnically diverse adolescents. After a minimum three-day washout period without any antipsychotic therapy, adolescents were randomly assigned to receive one of two fixed doses of aripiprazole [10 mg/day (n=100) or 30 mg/day (n=102)] or placebo (n=100). Aripiprazole was started at 2 mg/day and titrated to the target dose. The primary efficacy endpoint was the mean change from baseline to endpoint (Week Six) in the PANSS Total Score. Secondary endpoints included the PANSS positive and negative subscales and the Clinical Global Impression of Improvement (CGI-I) scale. Important safety measures included occurence rate of adverse events, discontinuation from study due to adverse events, and laboratory measures.........

Posted by: JoAnn      Read more         Source


May 22, 2007, 9:37 PM CT

Aripiprazole in major depressive disorder

Aripiprazole in major depressive disorder
Investigational studies are important because a number of patients with major depressive disorder do not achieve adequate symptom response, said study investigator Arif Khan, M.D., Medical Director, Northwest Clinical Research Center, Bellevue, Wash., and Adjunct Professor, Psychiatry, Duke University, Durham, N.C. The findings from this study contribute more information about the potential use of add-on medications to antidepressant treatment in patients who inadequately respond to antidepressants alone.

Study Design and Findings

This double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, multi-center, six-week study enrolled adults diagnosed with major depressive disorder who had an inadequate response to one or more ADTs. After a seven to 28-day screening phase, adults in this study underwent an eight-week prospective therapy phase with one ADT plus single-blind placebo to confirm their inadequate response to ADT. The ADTs included escitalopram, fluoxetine, paroxetine controlled release, sertraline or venlafaxine extended release, dosed per label guidelines. A total of 362 adults with inadequate response then entered the six-week randomized therapy phase during which they continued their ADT plus double-blind adjunctive placebo or adjunctive aripiprazole (2-20 mg/day).........

Posted by: JoAnn      Read more         Source


May 21, 2007, 10:48 AM CT

Persistent Smokers May Have Higher Risk Of Depression

Persistent Smokers May Have Higher Risk Of Depression
Based on a Finnish study, persistent smokers may have higher risk to become depressed compared to never smokers. Also those smokers who quit have an elevated risk of depressive symptoms in short run. However, in long run this risk declines to the level of never smokers. In other words, both completely smoke-free life style and successful smoking cessation in long run seem to protect from depressive symptoms.

It is known that depression is linked to cigarette smoking, but the nature of this association is discussed under various hypotheses. First, as per the so called self-medicine hypothesis, those who suffer from depressive symptoms smoke cigarettes in order to alleviate their symptoms. As per the second assumption, chronic persistent smoking may have a role in the etiology of depression. The third hypothesis suggests that there is a reciprocal mechanism between smoking and depression. The fourth hypothesis says that there are shared underlying genetic factors explaining this co-morbidity.

This study conducted in the Department of Public Health at the University of Helsinki explored, which of those assumptions would be supported by the data, when smoking behavior and changes in it is considered as a predictor of depressive symptoms. The scientists had access to the data collected within the Finnish Adult Twin Cohort Project. There were about four thousand male and five thousand female twins, whose health and health behavior were followed-up through 15 years.........

Posted by: JoAnn      Read more         Source


May 17, 2007, 5:28 AM CT

High-quality child care for poor children

High-quality child care for poor children
Young adults from low-income families who were in full-time early educational child care from infancy to age 5 report fewer symptoms of depression than their peers who were not in this type of care. The early educational intervention also appears to have protected the children to some extent against the negative effects of their home environments. These findings highlight the value of investing in high quality early childhood experiences for low-income children.

Those are the conclusions of a new study conducted by scientists at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and the University of Washington at Seattle. The study is reported in the May/June 2007 issue of the journal Child Development.

Research has shown a relationship between poverty in early childhood and an increased risk for mental health problems in adulthood. Many early intervention programs have been found to enhance the cognitive development and academic outcomes of children living in poverty, but less is known about the long-term effects of these programs on children's mental health.

Some 111 children were enrolled as infants in the Abecedarian Project, a North Carolina-based study in which high-risk children were randomly assigned to early educational child care from infancy to age 5; a control group did not receive such care. All children came from low-income families with demographic factors known to predict developmental delays or academic problems; 98 percent were African-American. As part of the study, developmental and demographic data were collected regularly during the early childhood years with follow-up assessments in adolescence and young adulthood.........

Posted by: JoAnn      Read more         Source



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Did you know?
Too little evidence exists to recommend or rule out estrogen as a treatment for schizophrenia in women, a new review of studies finds.People diagnosed with schizophrenia suffer distorted perceptions of reality and hallucinations. Today, estrogen is strictly an experimental therapy for the psychotic symptoms associated with the mental illness.

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