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May 17, 2006, 8:52 PM CT

A Father's Hand Guides A Child To Success

A Father's Hand Guides A Child To Success Paquette believes that there is a link between a poor father-child relationship and such problems as dropping out of school, difficulty entering the job market, gangs and homelessness.
"Does a child need a father?" Daniel Paquette asks this question when he speaks at libraries and cultural centres in Quebec. The answer is yes. Paquette, a professor in the Department of Psychology, explains: "A good relationship with the father gives a child confidence in her own abilities and teaches her how to handle danger and new physical and social situations".

Paquette, a researcher at the Institut de recherche pour le developpement social des jeunes, has been investigating various aspects of attachment for eleven years. His studies on the development of children in distress have convinced him that a child's social skills must be learned through close relationships with one or more adults in the child's circle. The father is an essential role model.

"Fathers help the child explore her world," says Paquette. "The child needs stimulation and encouragement as much as she needs the security and stability that she gets from her mother. Fathers are more likely than mothers to play physical games with young children." These games teach the child to take initiative, face challenges and claim her place in a competitive world.

Paquette believes that there is a link between a poor father-child relationship and such problems as dropping out of school, difficulty entering the job market, gangs and homelessness.........

Posted by: Janet      Permalink         Source


May 17, 2006, 0:11 AM CT

Cholesterol-lowering Drugs Do Not Increase Breast Cancer Risk

Cholesterol-lowering Drugs Do Not Increase Breast Cancer Risk
A report being reported in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute found that women who took statins--the widely used cholesterol lowering drugs--do not face an increased breast cancer risk as had been suggested by some prior studies. In fact, the study, which was led by a researcher at the University of Pittsburgh Graduate School of Public Health (GSPH), found that women who took hydrophobic statins, named for their inability to dissolve readily in water, had an almost one-fifth lower incidence of invasive breast cancer compared to women who did not take statins.

"At minimum, our findings suggest that women can now be reassured that they are not increasing their risk of developing breast cancer by taking these drugs," said senior author Jane Cauley, Dr.P.H., professor and vice chair for research, department of epidemiology, GSPH. "Eventhough we found that women who took hydrophobic statins actually lowered their breast cancer risk, we believe this finding needs to be confirmed in additional studies."

Dr. Cauley and her co-workers, representing several other research institutions, obtained their findings by analyzing breast cancer incidence over an almost seven-year period among more than 156,000 women enrolled in the long-running Women's Health Initiative study. Of this group of post-menopausal women, 11,710 were statin users; with about 30 percent taking a hydrophilic, or water soluble, statin, and the remaining 70 percent taking a hydrophobic statin.........

Posted by: Janet      Permalink         Source


May 16, 2006, 11:53 PM CT

Women's Career Choices Influenced More By Culture

Women's Career Choices Influenced More By Culture
The diversity of today's American workforce challenges information-technology organizations that have "one-size-fits-all" policies, and nowhere is that more evident than with women employees, says a Penn State researcher.

"Policy makers, educators, managers need to recognize that you can't generalize to all women," said Dr. Eileen Trauth, professor in the College of Information Sciences and Technology (IST). "There is far too much variation in the paths that women take for anyone to assume that women's career motivations are the same, their methods of balancing work and family are the same, or their responses to motherhood are the same."

Trauth conducted interviews with 167 women who were working in IT in Australia, New Zealand, Ireland and the United States. Besides their place of residence, the women also represented a range of racial and ethnic backgrounds.

Those interviews suggested women's career choices were influenced by a wide range of factors including gender stereotypes, societal messages and family dynamics, Trauth said. But she also recorded a wide range of responses to the motherhood, career and educational choices and gender stereotypes, reinforcing her belief that recognizing such diversity may yield more opportunities for women.

"What would be inappropriate is to look at a young woman and presume that she will get married, or that she will have children or that she will leave the workforce if she does have children," said Trauth, paraphrasing one interviewee's experience. "Organizations shouldn't have HR policies based on gender stereotypes because people are motivated by different things-salary, job security, flexible work schedules."........

Posted by: Janet      Permalink         Source


May 16, 2006, 11:50 PM CT

Some People Would Give Life Or Limb Not To Be Fat

Some People Would Give Life Or Limb Not To Be Fat
Nearly half of the people responding to an online survey about obesity said they would give up a year of their life rather than be fat, as per a research studyby the Rudd Center for Food Policy and Obesity at Yale.

The 4,000 respondents in varying numbers between 15% and 30% also said they would rather walk away from their marriage, give up the possibility of having children, be depressed, or become alcoholic rather than be obese. Five percent and four percent, respectively, said they would rather lose a limb or be blind than be overweight.

"We were surprised by the sheer number of people who reported they would be willing to make major sacrifices to avoid being obese. It drives home the message that weight bias is powerful and pervasive," said Marlene Schwartz, associate director of the Rudd Center and lead author of the study in Obesity, which was issued this month.

In addition to these comments, the study assessed implicit and explicit, or unconscious and conscious, negative attitudes about obesity. The data was collected from a web site developed for the purpose of the study. People found out about the website by attending a conference, reading articles in which one of the authors was interviewed, or by visiting the Rudd Center website. Of those who responded, three percent were underweight, 41 percent were normal weight, 21 percent were overweight, 21 percent were obese and 14 percent were extremely obese.........

Posted by: JoAnn      Permalink         Source


May 16, 2006, 11:05 PM CT

Cultural Approach To Tackling Obesity

Cultural Approach To Tackling Obesity
Culture plays a significant role in how women perceive obesity in terms of both appearance and health, as per a research studyby Yale School of Nursing scientists in the Journal of Advanced Nursing.

Maryanne Davidson, Yale University School of Nursing, and Kathleen Knafl, Oregon Health and Sciences University, reviewed 20 papers published over 10 years on descriptions of the concept of obesity by health professionals, Black Americans, Latino Americans and Caucasian Americans. Davidson and Knafl found women in general base their ideal weight on cultural criteria.

"Black American study participants defined obesity in positive terms, relating it to attractiveness, sexual desirability, body image, strength or goodness, self esteem and social acceptability," said Davidson. "They didn't view obesity as cause for concern when it came to their health."

White women, conversely, defined obesity in negative terms, describing it as unattractive and socially undesirable and associated obesity with negative body image and decreased self-esteem. Davidson said some of these women saw weight as a health issue, while others did not.

"Key health issues correlation to obesity include diabetes, hypertension and cholesterol, asthma and some cancers," Davidson said. "That's why it's imperative that scientists and healthcare providers understand how people from different cultures view obesity. This will help them to promote key messages about the health risks associated with excess weight in a culturally sensitive way."........

Posted by: JoAnn      Permalink         Source


May 16, 2006, 10:41 PM CT

Helping Hands: Are Two More Trouble than One?

Helping Hands: Are Two More Trouble than One? Author Kyle Reed demonstrates his apparatus for investigating haptic communication when two people try to complete a simple physical task together.
Having another person help you with a simple physical task often seems to be more trouble than it's worth. However, scientists at Northwestern University have found that in some cases, pairs perform better than individuals even when each individual thinks the other is a hindrance.

Authors of the study included psychology experts, neuroscientists, and robotics scientists who were interested in the possibility of haptic communication. Haptics, from the Greek haptiko, relates to the sense of touch and motion. A number of other kinds of pair interactions have been heavily studied, including facial expression, gesture, spoken language, and visually observing each other's actions. The scientists wished to determine if pairs could coordinate effectively through a haptic channel of communication, which has been little studied.

Their experiment, described in the May 2006 issue of Psychological Science, was designed to be as simple as possible, yet to isolate haptic interactions from other kinds of interactions. In the experiment two individuals grasped opposite ends of a rigid two-handled crank. A marker was attached to the crank. The participants were asked to move the marker toward a target as quickly as possible whenever a target appeared. Each participant had to deal with the other's actions, as experienced solely through the shared forces and motions of the crank. A curtain kept them from seeing each other and they were asked not to talk.........

Posted by: JoAnn      Permalink         Source


May 16, 2006, 0:04 AM CT

Exercise, Diet May Protect Against Colorectal Cancer

Exercise, Diet May Protect Against Colorectal Cancer
Voluntary exercise and a restricted diet reduced the number and size of pre-malignant polyps in the intestines of male mice and improved survival, as per a research studyby a University of Wisconsin-Madison research published May 13 in the journal Carcinogenesis.

The study is the first to suggest that a "negative energy balance" - produced by increasing the mice's energy output by use of a running wheel, while maintaining a restricted calorie intake - appeared to be the important factor in inhibiting the growth of polyps, which are the forerunners of colorectal tumors, says lead author Lisa H. Colbert, assistant professor in the UW-Madison department of kinesiology.

For the study, Colbert and her co-authors used mice with a genetic mutation that predisposed them to develop intestinal polyps.

"Our studies are relevant for humans in that these mice have a mutation in one of the same genes, APC, that is also mutated in human colon cancer," she explains. "The protective effect of exercise and lower body weight in our mice is consistent with epidemiological evidence in humans that suggests higher levels of activity and lower body weight reduces the risk of colon cancer."

Mutations in the APC gene in humans are responsible for an inherited condition called familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). This condition affects about one in 10,000-15,000 people worldwide, and 95 percent of those affected develop polyps in the colon that eventually progress into cancer, commonly before age 40.........

Posted by: Janet      Permalink         Source


May 15, 2006, 11:59 PM CT

Extra Pounds May Lower Mortality Rates In Elderly

Extra Pounds May Lower Mortality Rates In Elderly
If you're more than 80 years old, carrying a few extra pounds might not be such a bad idea. In fact, it may be beneficial.

That's one of the findings from a joint UC Irvine and University of Southern California analysis of body mass index (BMI) and mortality rates from participants of a large-scale study based in a Southern California retirement community.

The analysis found that study participants in their 80s and 90s who were overweight by BMI standards (25 to 29.9 range) had lower mortality rates than those who were in the normal range (18.5 to 24.9). The findings suggest that the BMI scale, which applies to all adults, may not be appropriate for the elderly and should be age-adjusted. This supports other research offering the same conclusion. The study appears in the May 15 issue of the American Journal of Epidemiology.

"We found that what's recommended for everyone else with body mass index measurements isn't necessarily the best for the elderly," says Maria Corrada, an epidemiologist in the UCI School of Medicine who led the analysis effort. "It seems that if you're in your 80s or 90s, you may live even longer if you are a bit overweight by BMI standards".

The study, which is part of the Leisure World Cohort Study at Laguna Woods, Calif., looked at survey data taken from 13,451 residents in the large retirement community in 1981-83 and 1985. The residents, whose average age was 73 at the time of the survey, provided their height and weight at age 21 and at the time of the survey.........

Posted by: JoAnn      Permalink         Source


May 15, 2006, 11:48 PM CT

New Compound To Block Brain Cancer Growth

New Compound To Block Brain Cancer Growth
By determining how a class of compounds blocks signaling in cells, UCSF researchers have identified what is perhaps the most potent drug candidate yet against a highly lethal kind of brain tumor.

The compound, known as PI-103, shows unique potency against cancer cell proliferation in studies of mice with grafts of human glioma cells. Gliomas are the most common form of brain cancer, and have proven very difficult to treat.

The unique effectiveness of PI-103 stems from its ability to attack two separate steps in the series of signals that trigger the spread of cancer. The dual blockade proved to be a safe and effective inhibitor of cancer cell proliferation in mice with the human tumors, the researchers found.

The glioma research is being published online May 15 by the journal Cancer Cell. A description of the strategy used to identify the molecular level action of the inhibitors was published online by the journal Cell on April 27.

Food and Drug Administration approval five years ago of the cancer drug Gleevec marked a promising new strategy against cancer. Gleevec was the first drug on the market designed to block ubiquitous signaling molecules called protein kinases - enzymes known to trigger normal cell proliferation, and in the case of cancer, the growth of tumors. Another group of kinases, called lipid kinases are now emerging as important new targets, particularly PI3 alpha kinase, an enzyme often found to be overactive in brain, breast, colon and stomach cancers.........

Posted by: Janet      Permalink         Source


May 15, 2006, 11:43 PM CT

New Compound Reduces Stroke Damage

New Compound Reduces Stroke Damage
A group of German researchers has synthesized a new compound that dramatically decreases the damage to neurons in rats demonstrating stroke symptoms. The research appears as the "Paper of the Week" in the May 26 issue of the Journal of Biological Chemistry, an American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology journal.

Stroke is the third leading cause of death in the United States and the most common cause of adult disability. An ischemic stroke occurs when a cerebral vessel occludes, obstructing blood flow to a portion of the brain. Currently, there is only one approved stroke treatment, tissue plasminogen activator, which targets the thrombus within the blood vessel. Because of the lack of available stroke therapys, neuroprotective agents have also generated as much interest as thrombolytic therapies.

The immunosuppressive drug FK506 (also known as Tacrolimus or Prograf®) is often administered to patients receiving transplants to prevent organ rejection. Dervatives of the drug are also usually used in the therapy of autoimmune diseases. FK506 inhibits T-cell activation by binding to members of the FK506-binding protein (FKBP) family. Interestingly, FK506, and several molecules with similar structures, also demonstrate neuroprotective and neuroregenerative effects in a wide range of animal models mimicking Parkinson's disease, dementia, stroke, and nerve damage.........

Posted by: Daniel      Permalink         Source



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Did you know?
Studies in monkeys and women suggest that unlike traditional estrogen therapy, a diet high in the natural plant estrogens found in soy does not increase the risk of uterine cancer in postmenopausal women, according to Mark Cline, D.V.M., Ph.D., an associate professor of comparative medicine at Wake Forest University Baptist Medical Center.

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