MedicineWorld.Org
Your gateway to the world of medicine
Home
News
Cancer News
About Us
Cancer
Health Professionals
Patients and public
Contact Us
Disclaimer

Medicineworld.org: Archives of health news blog


Go Back to the main health news blog

Subscribe To Health Blog RSS Feed  RSS content feed What is RSS feed?

Archives Of Health News Blog From Medicineworld.Org


January 30, 2008, 9:14 PM CT

Blue-eyed humans have a single, common ancestor

Blue-eyed humans have a single, common ancestor
New research shows that people with blue eyes have a single, common ancestor. A team at the University of Copenhagen have tracked down a genetic mutation which took place 6-10,000 years ago and is the cause of the eye colour of all blue-eyed humans alive on the planet today.

What is the genetic mutation.

"Originally, we all had brown eyes", said Professor Eiberg from the Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine. "But a genetic mutation affecting the OCA2 gene in our chromosomes resulted in the creation of a "switch", which literally "turned off" the ability to produce brown eyes". The OCA2 gene codes for the so-called P protein, which is involved in the production of melanin, the pigment that gives colour to our hair, eyes and skin. The "switch", which is located in the gene adjacent to OCA2 does not, however, turn off the gene entirely, but rather limits its action to reducing the production of melanin in the iris - effectively "diluting" brown eyes to blue. The switch's effect on OCA2 is very specific therefore. If the OCA2 gene had been completely destroyed or turned off, human beings would be without melanin in their hair, eyes or skin colour - a condition known as albinism.

Limited genetic variation.

Variation in the colour of the eyes from brown to green can all be explained by the amount of melanin in the iris, but blue-eyed individuals only have a small degree of variation in the amount of melanin in their eyes. "From this we can conclude that all blue-eyed individuals are associated with the same ancestor," says Professor Eiberg. "They have all inherited the same switch at exactly the same spot in their DNA." Brown-eyed individuals, by contrast, have considerable individual variation in the area of their DNA that controls melanin production.........

Posted by: Janet      Read more         Source


January 30, 2008, 9:06 PM CT

CHD Patients Continue With Poor Diet

CHD Patients Continue With Poor Diet
More than 13 million Americans have survived a heart attack or have been diagnosed with coronary heart disease (CHD), the number one cause of death in the United States. In addition to medications, changes in lifestyle, such as a healthy diet and exercise, are known to reduce the risk for subsequent cardiac events. Despite this evidence, a high proportion of heart attack survivors do not follow their doctor's advice to adhere to a healthy diet, as per scientists at the University of Massachusetts Medical School (UMMS).

A number of studies have centered on determining dietary risk factors for developing CHD, but few investigations have studied the diets of CHD patients following diagnosis. In "Dietary Quality 1 Year after Diagnosis of Coronary Heart Disease," reported in the recent issue of the Journal of the American Dietetic Association, scientists measured the diet quality of 555 CHD patients one year after a diagnostic coronary angiography. Using the Alternative Health Eating Index (AHEI) to assess diet quality, they observed that a high proportion of those patients had not made the necessary improvements to their diets to help reduce the risk of a secondary CHD event. Proven to be a strong predictor of CHD, the AHEI is a measure that isolates dietary components that are most strongly associated with CHD risk reduction.........

Posted by: Daniel      Read more         Source


January 29, 2008, 10:09 PM CT

The eyes Tells It All

The eyes Tells It All
Using the radiocarbon dating method and special proteins in the lens of the eye, scientists at the University of Copenhagen and Aarhus can now establish, with relatively high precision, when a person was born. This provides a useful tool for forensic researchers who can use it to establish the date of birth of an unidentified body and could also have further consequences for health science research. The findings appear in the online, open-access journal PLoS ONE on January 30.

The lens of the eye is made up of transparent proteins called crystallins. These are packed so tightly together and in such a particular way, that they behave like crystals, allowing light to pass through the lens of the eye so that we can see. From conception and up until a human being is 1-2 years of age, the cells in the lens build these crystalline proteins. Once this organic construction work is done, however, the lens crystallins remain essentially unchanged for the rest of our lives. This is a fact that scientists can now put to good use.

A minute quantity of Carbon (C-12) in the carbon-dioxide content of the atmosphere contains two extra neutrons and is therefore called Carbon-14 (C-14). This isotope is radioactive, but decays so slowly and harmlessly into nitrogen, that this small carbon element, which occurs quite naturally in nature, is in no way harmful to humans, plants or animals.........

Posted by: Mike      Read more         Source


January 29, 2008, 9:26 PM CT

New Treatment Target for Asthma

New Treatment Target for Asthma
An enzyme released by mast cells in the lungs appears to play a key role in the tightening of airways that is a hallmark of asthma - pointing to a potential new target for therapy against the illness.

Reporting in the online edition of Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, a team at Weill Cornell Medical College explains that during an immune response, mast cells release the enzyme - called renin - which in turn produces angiotensin, a potent constrictor of the smooth muscle that lines airways.

Mast cells are normally present in small numbers in all organs, and are best known for their role in allergy, shock, wound healing and defense against pathogens.

"Back in 2005, our team was the first to discover that mast cells in the heart released renin locally, which elicited heart arrhythmias by triggering angiotensin production within the heart," explained co-senior author Dr. Roberto Levi, professor of pharmacology at Weill Cornell Medical College.

"Now, we've expanded those findings to the lungs, where similar mechanisms appear to work locally to help trigger constriction in the airway," he says.

Renin is no stranger to medical research - for decades, doctors have known that the enzyme is produced by the kidney in relatively large quantities for systemic use throughout the body. But the Weill Cornell team was the first to discover that mast cells also produced their own "local" supply of the enzyme, at a variety of body sites.........

Posted by: JoAnn      Read more         Source


January 29, 2008, 9:24 PM CT

Digital mammography superior to film mammography

Digital mammography superior to film mammography
For some women, digital mammography may be a better screening option than film mammography, as per newly published results from a national study led by a University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill researcher.

The results, from the Digital Mammographic Imaging Screening Trial (DMIST), appear in the recent issue of Radiology. UNCs Dr. Etta D. Pisano is principal investigator and lead author of the study, which observed that digital mammography performed better than film mammography for pre- and perimenopausal women under age 50 with dense breasts.

We looked at a cross-section of characteristics, Pisano said. This paper confirms that if you are under 50, pre- or perimenopausal, and have dense breasts, you should definitely be screened with digital rather than film.

Pisano is Kenan professor of radiology and biomedical engineering and vice dean for academic affairs and in the UNC School of Medicine. She is also director of the Biomedical Research Imaging Center and a member of UNC Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center.

DMIST enrolled 49,528 women at 33 centers in the U.S. and Canada. The women underwent both digital and film mammography. Breast cancer status was determined for 42,760 women.

The original DMIST results showed that digital was statistically similar to film in the overall screening population but performed better than film in pre- and perimenopausal women under 50, Pisano said.........

Posted by: Janet      Read more         Source


January 29, 2008, 9:22 PM CT

Creative and noncreative problem solvers

Creative and noncreative problem solvers
Why do some people solve problems more creatively than others? Are people who think creatively somehow different from those who tend to think in a more methodical fashion? .

These questions are part of a long-standing debate, with some scientists arguing that what we call creative thought and noncreative thought are not basically different. If this is the case, then people who are thought of as creative do not really think in a fundamentally different way from those who are thought of as noncreative. On the other side of this debate, some scientists have argued that creative thought is fundamentally different from other forms of thought. If this is true, then those who tend to think creatively really are somehow different.

A new study led by John Kounios, professor of psychology at Drexel University and Mark Jung-Beeman of Northwestern University addresses these questions by comparing the brain activity of creative and noncreative problem solvers. The study reported in the journal Neuropsychologia, reveals a distinct pattern of brain activity, even at rest, in people who tend to solve problems with a sudden creative insight -- an Aha! Moment in comparison to people who tend to solve problems more methodically.

At the beginning of the study, participants relaxed quietly for seven minutes while their electroencephalograms (EEGs) were recorded to show their brain activity. The participants were not given any task to perform and told they could think about whatever they wanted. Later, they were asked to solve a series of anagrams scrambled letters that can be rearranged to form words [MPXAELE = EXAMPLE]. These can be solved by deliberately and methodically trying out different letter combinations, or they can be solved with a sudden insight or Aha! in which the solution pops into awareness. After each successful solution, participants indicated in which way the solution had come to them.........

Posted by: Janet      Read more         Source


January 28, 2008, 10:57 PM CT

Number of Russian women smokers has doubled

Number of Russian women smokers has doubled
In 1992, seven per cent of women smoked, in comparison to almost 15 per cent by 2003. In the same period, the number of men who smoke has risen from 57 per cent to 63 per cent.

The scientists behind the study, reported in the journal Tobacco Control, blame the privatisation of the previously state owned tobacco industry and the behaviour of the transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) for what they describe as a "very worrying increase".

Between 1992 and 2000, TTCs such as Philip Morris, British American Tobacco and Japan Tobacco International invested approximately US$1.7 billion to gain a 60 per cent share of the privatised Russian tobacco market.

Tobacco advertising had simply not existed in the Soviet era. Yet as soon as the TTCs were there, it was rampant, say researchers. By the mid 1990s it was estimated that half of all billboards in Moscow and three quarters of plastic bags in Russia carried tobacco advertising.

"There can be no doubt that the marketing tactics of Philip Morris, British American Tobacco and the like directly underpin this massive increase in smoking that spells disaster for health in Russia," said Dr Anna Gilmore from the School for Health at the University of Bath, who carried out the study with academics from the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine and University College London, and has been researching tobacco control in the region for over seven years.........

Posted by: Janet      Read more         Source


January 28, 2008, 10:51 PM CT

Over-the-counter eardrops may cause hearing loss

Over-the-counter eardrops may cause hearing loss
A new study, led by scientists at The Montreal Childrens Hospital (MCH) of the MUHC, has revealed that certain over-the-counter earwax softeners can cause severe inflammation and damage to the eardrum and inner ear. The results of the study, recently published in The Laryngoscope, suggest that use of these medications should be discouraged.

Patients often complain that wax is blocking their ears and is causing discomfort and sometimes deafness, says Dr. Sam Daniel principal investigator of the study and director of McGill Auditory Sciences Laboratory at The Childrens. Over-the-counter earwax softeners are used to breakup and disperse this excess wax. However, the effects of these medications on the cells of the ear had not been thoroughly analyzed.

Because some of these products are readily available to the public without a consultation with or prescription from a physician, it is important to make sure they are safe to use. Our study shows that in a well-established animal model, one such product, Cerumenex, is in fact, toxic to the cells of the ear, says Dr. Daniel.

Dr. Daniel and his team studied the impact of Cerumenex on hearing. In addition, overall toxicity in the outer ear and changes in the nerve cells of the inner ear were analyzed.

Harmful effects to a number of of the cells were observed after only one dose, says Dr. Melvin Schloss co-author and MCH Director of Otolaryngology. We observed reduced hearing, severe inflammation, and lesions to the nerve cells.........

Posted by: Sue      Read more         Source


January 28, 2008, 10:31 PM CT

The smaller the tumor, the better your chances

The smaller the tumor, the better your chances
The odds of surviving cancer of the pancreas increase dramatically for patients whose tumors are smallest, as per a new study by scientists at Saint Louis University and the M.D. Anderson Cancer Center in Houston the first study to specifically evaluate the link between tumor size and survival rates for one of the most common and deadly cancers.

The findings in the current edition of Pancreas (www.pancreasjournal.com) vividly underscore the importance of early diagnosis of pancreas cancer, the scientists said.

Even though it seems intuitive and was supported by preliminary observations from earlier studies, for the first time we now have evidence that a progressive decrease in the size of a pancreatic tumor at the time of diagnosis improves patient outcomes rather dramatically, said Banke Agarwal, M.D., Associate Professor of gastroenterology at the Saint Louis University School of Medicine and lead author of the study.

These data emphasize the benefit and the need of finding and diagnosing tumors in the pancreas as early as possible, Agarwal added. In order to make progress against pancreas cancer, we have to redouble our efforts to identify symptoms that are linked to the early stages of the disease.

Pancreas cancer is the fourth most common cancer in the United States and one of the most deadly, responsible for more than 33,000 deaths a year, as per the National Institutes of Health.........

Posted by: Sue      Read more         Source


January 28, 2008, 10:26 PM CT

Device Zeroes in on Small Breast Tumors

Device Zeroes in on Small Breast Tumors
A new medical imager for detecting and guiding the biopsy of suspicious breast cancer lesions is capable of spotting tumors that are half the size of the smallest ones detected by standard imaging systems, as per a new study.

The results of initial testing of the PEM/PET system, designed and constructed by researchers at the Department of Energy's Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, West Virginia University School of Medicine and the University of Maryland School of Medicine would be reported in the journal Physics in Medicine and Biology on Feb. 7.

"This is the most-important and most-difficult imager we've developed so far," Stan Majewski, Jefferson Lab Radiation Detector and Medical Imaging Group leader said. "It is another example of nuclear physics detector technology that we have put a lot of time and effort into adapting for the common good".

Testing of the new imager was led by Ray Raylman, a professor of radiology and vice chair of Radiology Research at WVU and lead author on the study. Raylman's team imaged various radioactive sources to test the resolution of the system.

"We had good performance characteristics, with image resolution below two millimeters. In regular PET, the image resolution is over five millimeters, so we're quite a bit better than that," Raylman said. In addition, the initial tests revealed that the PEM/PET system can complete an image and biopsy in about the same amount of time as a traditional biopsy.........

Posted by: Janet      Read more         Source



Older Blog Entries   1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   10   11   12   13   14   15   16   17   18   19   20   21   22   23   24   25   26   27   28   29   30   31   32   33   34   35   36   37   38   39   40   41   42   43   44   45   46   47   48   49   50   51   52   53   54   55   56   57   58   59   60   61   62   63   64   65   66   67   68   69   70   71   72   73   74   75   76   77   78   79   80   81   82   83   84   85   86   87   88   89   90   91   92   93   94   95   96   97   98   99   100   101   102   103   104   105   106   107   108   109   110   111   112   113   114   115   116   117   118   119   120   121   122   123   124   125   126   127   128   129   130   131   132   133   134   135   136   137   138   139   140   141   142   143   144   145   146   147   148   149   150   151   152   153   154   155   156   157   158   159   160   161   162   163   164   165   166   167   168   169   170   171   172   173   174   175   176   177   178   179   180   181   182   183   184   185   186   187   188   189   190   191   192   193   194   195   196   197   198   199   200   201   202   203   204   205   206   207   208   209   210   211   212   213   214   215   216   217   218   219   220   221   222   223   224   225   226   227   228   229   230   231   232   233   234   235   236   237   238   239   240   241   242   243   244   245   246   247   248   249   250   251   252   253   254   255   256   257   258   259   260   261   262   263   264   265   266   267   268   269   270   271   272   273   274   275   276   277   278   279   280   281   282   283   284   285   286   287   288   289   290   291   292   293   294   295   296   297   298  

Did you know?
Studies in monkeys and women suggest that unlike traditional estrogen therapy, a diet high in the natural plant estrogens found in soy does not increase the risk of uterine cancer in postmenopausal women, according to Mark Cline, D.V.M., Ph.D., an associate professor of comparative medicine at Wake Forest University Baptist Medical Center.

Medicineworld.org: Archives of health news blog

Acute bacterial meningitis| Alzheimer's disease| Carpal tunnel syndrome| Cerebral aneurysms| Cerebral palsy| Chronic fatigue syndrome| Cluster headache| Dementia| Epilepsy seizure disorders| Febrile seizures| Guillain barre syndrome| Head injury| Hydrocephalus| Neurology| Insomnia| Low backache| Mental retardation| Migraine headaches| Multiple sclerosis| Myasthenia gravis| Neurological manifestations of aids| Parkinsonism parkinson's disease| Personality disorders| Sleep disorders insomnia| Syncope| Trigeminal neuralgia| Vertigo|

Copyright statement
The contents of this web page are protected. Legal action may follow for reproduction of materials without permission.