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August 1, 2006, 6:58 AM CT

No Cancer Without Cell Walls

No Cancer Without Cell Walls
Cancer cells, like houses, need building materials for their walls. And as with a house, the cell wall needs to be built at just the right moment to protect and allow the construction of internal components. A team from the Uppsala Branch of the global Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research (LICR) has not only shown how the cell gets this timing right, but has also conducted proof-of-principle studies that indicate taking away the cell's bricks and mortar is a potential strategy for cancer control.

"New cells are created by the duplication of existing cells through a highly-organized process known as the cell cycle," explains lead author, Dr. Maite Bengoechea Alonso. "Last year we discovered that a protein called SREBP1 that regulates the synthesis of lipids needed for new cell walls was regulated during the cell cycle. Now we show that the SREBP1 protein actually controls the cell cycle".

Senior author, LICR's Dr. Johan Ericsson, realized that disrupting the function of SREBP1 might prevent the lipid synthesis mandatory for new cell walls. "In fact, we literally stopped the cell cycle in its tracks by removing SREBP1 from cells. It seems that if you don't have SREBP1 activity, you can't make lipids, and if you don't have lipids, you can't make new cells".

As per Dr. Ericsson, who is also a Research Fellow of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, this approach might one day form the basis of a new strategy for the long-term control of cancer. "Cancer cells divide uncontrollably, so their need for lipids is more urgent and continuous than normal cells. Treatment with an inhibitor of SREBP1 might reduce the rate of cancer cell proliferation to slow down tumor growth, or might enhance the effect of targeted therapies that aim to actually kill cancer cells".........

Posted by: Janet      Permalink         Source


August 1, 2006, 6:53 AM CT

Curry And Onions May Prevent Colon Cancer

Curry And Onions May Prevent Colon Cancer
A small but informative clinical trial by Johns Hopkins researchers shows that a pill combining chemicals found in turmeric, a spice used in curries, and onions reduces both the size and number of premalignant lesions in the human intestinal tract.

In the study, reported in the recent issue of Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology, five patients with an inherited form of premalignant polyps in the lower bowel known as familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) were treated with regular doses of curcumin (the chemical found in turmeric) and quercetin, an antioxidant in onions, over an average of six months. The average number of polyps dropped 60.4 percent, and the average size dropped by 50.9 percent, as per a team led by Francis M. Giardiello, M.D., at the Division of Gastroenterology, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, and Marcia Cruz-Correa, M.D., Ph.D., at Johns Hopkins and the University of Puerto Rico School of Medicine.

"We believe this is the first proof of principle that these substances have significant effects in patients with FAP," says Giardiello.

Typically familial adenomatous polyposis is a disorder that runs in families and is characterized by the development of hundreds of colorectal adenomas (polyps) and eventual colon cancer. Recently, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been used to treat some patients with this condition, but these compounds often produce significant side effects, including gastrointestinal ulcerations and bleeding, as per Giardiello.........

Posted by: Sue      Permalink         Source


August 1, 2006, 6:48 AM CT

Higher Blood Pressure Associated with Decline in Walking Ability

Higher Blood Pressure Associated with Decline in Walking Ability
Decline in lower limb function is common in older people, and worsening gait is linked to increased risk of dementia and death. However, factors contributing to gait difficulties in older persons are not well understood. A study by scientists at Rush University Medical Center suggests that higher blood pressure may be one factor linked to a decline in walking ability in later life. The research, by Dr. Raj Shah and his colleagues at the Rush Alzheimer's Disease Center, is reported in the August 2006 issue of the Journal of Gerontology: Medical Sciences, the scientific journal of The Gerontological Society of America.

Scientists recruited 888 older Catholic clergy without dementia or Parkinson's disease who are participating in the Religious Orders Study. At baseline, blood pressure was measured, the presence of vascular diseases and diabetes was recorded, cognitive function was assessed, and medications were inspected.

At baseline and subsequent annual visits, gait and balance were assessed using performance-based tasks, such as the time and number of steps taken to walk 8 feet, the time to sit up and down five times, the number of steps off the line during an 8-foot heel-to-toe walk, and a comparison of ability to stand with eyes open and eyes closed.

Participants completed a mean of nearly eight annual evaluations with a high rate of follow-up. Controlling for age, education, and gender, the study found a 10mmHg increment in systolic blood pressure was linked to greater decline in lower limb function. On average, lower limb function declined 28.7% faster in persons with a systolic blood pressure of 160 mmHg than in persons with a normal systolic blood pressure of 120 mmHg.........

Posted by: Daniel      Permalink         Source


August 1, 2006, 6:42 AM CT

Human Cytomegalovirus Vaccine

Human Cytomegalovirus Vaccine
Each year, about 40,000 children are born infected with human cytomegalovirus, or CMV, and about 8,000 of these children suffer permanent disabilities due to the virus almost one an hour. These disabilities can include hearing loss, vision loss, mental disability, a lack of coordination, and seizures. As per the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, CMV is as common a cause of serious disability as Down syndrome, fetal alcohol syndrome, or neural tube defects.

Because of the dangers posed by the virus to infants, the Institute of Medicine has declared that development of a CMV vaccine should be one of the highest priorities for vaccine makers. Now, in a new study in the August 1 issue of The Journal of Virology, scientists at The Wistar Institute outline an innovative approach that could be used to create such a vaccine.

The Wistar researchers began with the observation that mice harbor a species-specific form of CMV that is unable to sustain an infection in humans and is completely harmless to them. They then asked whether, using recombinant technologies, there might not be a way to shift the mouse-specific virus closer to the human-specific virus to generate a version of the virus able to elicit a protective immune response but not a dangerous infection in humans.........

Posted by: JoAnn      Permalink         Source


July 31, 2006, 10:58 PM CT

One Of 50 Most Influential Women In Optical

One Of 50 Most Influential Women In Optical Sarita Soni
P. Sarita Soni, professor of optometry and vice provost for research at Indiana University Bloomington, was named among the 50 most influential women in optical in a report released by Vision Monday magazine, a national news and analysis service for eye care professionals.

Soni joined the School of Optometry in 1978 and has developed and taught many courses in optometry, vision science and optometric technology. She is also the founder and co-director of the IU Borish Center for Ophthalmic Research, which has been involved in numerous clinical trials under her direction. Soni has published more than 70 research articles on corneas, contact lenses and refractive error corrections over the span of her career. She has also served in various consulting roles for the Food and Drug Administration, Federal Trade Commission and National Institutes of Health.

The report honored women who had made a difference in the optical industry through their leadership and service. This was the fourth year that Vision Monday has compiled this list of influential women in optical. View the report online at http://cms.visionmonday.com/articles/details.asp?ID=15727.

To speak with Soni, contact Elisabeth Andrews, 812-855-2153 or ecandrew@indiana.edu.........

Posted by: Mike      Permalink         Source


July 31, 2006, 10:32 PM CT

An Eye-opening Look At Anesthesia

An Eye-opening Look At Anesthesia Dr. Emery N. Brown Photo courtesy / Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology
Raise your hand if you are more afraid of the prospect of general anesthesia than of surgery itself. If you raised your hand, you are not alone, as per the newest faculty member at the Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology (HST).

Dr. Emery N. Brown, who explores what happens to the brain during anesthesia, began a dual appointment as professor of health sciences and technology and professor of computational neuroscience in the Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences (BCS) at MIT in October 2005.

"Anesthesia has taken on a mythical quality; it's not perceived as a neuro-physiological phenomenon," he said.

He describes the motivation behind his current research focus: "For a number of years, I was practicing anesthesiology, learning clinical skills in order to take care of patients, not thinking about how anesthesia affects patients. Then 10 years ago, when HST alum Dr. Greg Koski was the head of human studies at MGH, he said, 'It would be interesting to see an image, to see what happens when someone is under anesthesia.'" Brown was hooked.

"We say we induce anesthesia and then 'wake up' the patient," Brown said. "But in French the patient is reanime, or brought back to life. We haven't yet begun to think precisely about what we do, however. Anesthesia is not like sleep. It's not the same process".........

Posted by: Sue      Permalink         Source


July 31, 2006, 6:56 AM CT

HIV hides from drugs

HIV hides from drugs
UC Davis scientists have discovered that the human immunodeficiency virus, the virus that causes AIDS, is able to survive efforts to destroy it by hiding out in the mucosal tissues of the intestine. They also observed that HIV continues to replicate in the gut mucosa, suppressing immune function in patients being treated with antiretroviral treatment--even when blood samples from the same individuals indicated the therapy was working. Results of the three-year study appear in the August issue of the Journal of Virology (available online today at http://jvi.asm.org).

"This is the first longitudinal study to show that, while current HIV treatment is quite successful in reducing viral loads and increasing T-cells in peripheral blood, it is not so effective in gut mucosa," said Satya Dandekar, professor and chair of the Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology at UC Davis Health System and senior author of the study.

"The real battle between the virus and exposed individuals is happening in the gut immediately after viral infection," she said. "We need to be focusing our efforts on improving therapy of gut mucosa, where massive destruction of immune cells is occurring. Gut-associated lymphoid tissue accounts for 70 percent of the body's immune system. Restoring its function is crucial to ridding the body of the virus".........

Posted by: Mark      Permalink         Source


July 31, 2006, 6:51 AM CT

Malignant Melanoma Secretes Embryo Protein

Malignant Melanoma Secretes Embryo Protein
A Northwestern University research group has discovered that aggressive melanoma cells secrete Nodal, a protein that is critical to proper embryo formation.

An article describing this research was published recently in the advanced online issue of the journal Nature Medicine.

The scientists identified the potent and highly unstable embryonic growth factor by injecting aggressive melanoma cells into developing zebrafish embryos, which were used as "biosensors" for tumor cell-derived signals, and were consequently able to induce ectopic (abnormal) embryonic skull and backbone (axes) formation.

"This finding highlights the convergence of tumorigenic and embryonic signaling pathways. From a translational perspective, Nodal signaling provides a novel target for therapy of aggressive cancers such as melanomas," said Mary J. C. Hendrix, the corresponding author, of Children's Memorial Research Center where the discovery was made.

Hendrix is president and scientific director of the Children's Memorial Research Center, professor of pediatrics at Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine and a member of the executive committee of The Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center of Northwestern University. Jolanta M. Topczewska and Lynne-Marie Postovit, from Children's Memorial Research Center, co-led the study.........

Posted by: Janet      Permalink         Source


July 31, 2006, 6:48 AM CT

Diagnosis And Referrals For Kidney Disease

Diagnosis And Referrals For Kidney Disease
Results of a national study of 304 U.S. physicians, in which "mock" patients' symptoms were presented for diagnosis, suggest that a sizeable percentage of primary care doctors probably fail to properly diagnose and refer patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD).

Their findings, published in the recent issue of the American Journal of Kidney Diseases, show that of 126 kidney specialists surveyed, 97 percent properly diagnosed CKD and 99 percent would have recommended specialized kidney care for the "patient." But only 59 percent of the 89 family physicians and 78 percent of 89 general internal medicine physicians fully recognized the signs and symptoms of CKD. And referrals to a nephrologist were made by only 76 percent of the family physicians and only 81 percent of general internists.

"We, as physicians, can certainly do better," says L. Ebony Boulware, M.D., Assistant Professor of Medicine at The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, and lead author of the study.

"Millions of people have kidney disease, but a substantial number may not have their disease recognized," Boulware added. "Simply put, our study shows that primary care physicians are not recognizing kidney disease in high-risk patients as often as they should".

In the study, the Hopkins group asked the surveyed physicians to evaluate the medical files of a simulated patient being treated by a primary-care doctor and suffering from progressive CKD. CKD is a growing epidemic, affecting an estimated 10 million Americans. The medical "record" contained clues to the condition indicating that, based on guidelines issued in 2000 by the National Kidney Foundation, the patient should be referred to a nephrologist for evaluation of CKD.........

Posted by: Mark      Permalink         Source


July 31, 2006, 6:44 AM CT

Interventions Should Start After The First Puff

Interventions Should Start After The First Puff
In this research study, Gervais and his colleagues describe the sequence and timing of 12 milestones (6 correlation to cigarette use and 6 to symptoms of nicotine dependence) among grade 7 students. They observed that symptoms of nicotine dependence can take hold long before regular smoking, even after the first puff in some cases.

This information needs to be incorporated into intervention programs aimed at young smokers.

In a related commentary, Klein discusses the challenges in helping young smokers quit and the need for stronger public health efforts to keep youth from starting in the first place.........

Posted by: JoAnn      Permalink         Source



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Did you know?
Studies in monkeys and women suggest that unlike traditional estrogen therapy, a diet high in the natural plant estrogens found in soy does not increase the risk of uterine cancer in postmenopausal women, according to Mark Cline, D.V.M., Ph.D., an associate professor of comparative medicine at Wake Forest University Baptist Medical Center.

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