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July 7, 2006, 7:36 AM CT

light on cystic fibrosis-related diabetes

light on cystic fibrosis-related diabetes
A growing number of cystic fibrosis patients are battling a second, often deadly complication: a unique form of diabetes that shares characteristics of the type 1 and type 2 versions that strike a number of Americans.

A number of of these patients are teens who take enzymes to help digest their food and undergo daily physical treatment to loosen the thick, sticky mucus that clogs their lungs. But despite therapys that are helping thousands to live decades longer than ever before, when diabetes strikes, their life expectancy plummets -- on average by two years for men and an astounding 16 for women.

Now a University of Florida study in animals suggests diabetes in cystic fibrosis patients is not caused by the destruction of insulin-producing cells in the pancreas -- as is often the case in patients with the traditional form of type 1 diabetes -- but by differences in how these cells function. The findings were published this month in the American Diabetes Association's journal Diabetes.

Cystic fibrosis patients with diabetes produce some insulin on their own, but they require daily injections to boost their levels when eating so they can properly use sugar and other food nutrients for energy. At times they also become very resistant to the insulin they do make, similar to people with type 2 diabetes.........

Posted by: JoAnn      Permalink         Source


July 4, 2006, 9:40 AM CT

Infections Link With Diabetes

Infections Link With Diabetes
A major study has added weight to the theory that environmental factors such as common infections may be a trigger for diabetes in children and young adults.

The study, the biggest of its kind, analysed information from a register of over 4,000 people aged 0-29 years old diagnosed with Type 1 diabetes over a 25-year period. The findings for young adults have not been published before.

A quarter of a million people in the UK have Type 1 diabetes, and the number of cases in children is rising by three per cent each year. It develops if the body is unable to produce any insulin and commonly appears before the age of 40.

The study authors, from Newcastle and Leeds Universities and Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust, carried out a sophisticated statistical analysis using information from the register on the times and places where the children and young adults were diagnosed.

A pattern emerged where 'clusters' of cases were found at different geographical locations and time intervals for 10-19 year olds. There were six to seven per cent more cases of Type 1 diabetes found in 10-19 year olds in the clusters than would have been expected by chance.

Females with the condition were more likely to occur in clusters with seven to 14 per cent more cases than expected found in young girls and women aged 10-19 years.........

Posted by: JoAnn      Permalink         Source


June 26, 2006, 10:45 PM CT

Coffee Intake Linked To Lower Diabetes Risk

Coffee Intake Linked To Lower Diabetes Risk
Drinking coffee, particularly when it is decaffeinated, may be associated with a reduced risk of type 2 diabetes, as per a report in the June 26 issue of Archives of Internal Medicine, one of the JAMA/Archives journals.

Prior studies in the United States and Europe have linked coffee to a reduced risk of type 2 diabetes, as per background information in the article. The link between coffee and diabetes risk appears to be consistent across different ages and body weights; in addition, most research has found that the more coffee an individual generally drinks, the lower his or her risk for diabetes. However, it remains unclear whether it is the caffeine or another ingredient in coffee that may confer a protective effect.

Mark A. Pereira, Ph.D., and his colleagues at the University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, studied coffee intake and diabetes risk in 28,812 postmenopausal women in Iowa over an 11-year period. At the beginning of the study, in 1986, the women answered questions about their risk factors for diabetes, including age, body mass index, physical activity, alcohol consumption and smoking history. They also reported how often they consumed a variety of foods and beverages over the prior year, including regular and decaffeinated coffee.

Based on information published in the initial questionnaire, about half of the women (14,224) drank one to three cups of coffee per day; 2,875 drank more than six cups; 5,554 four to five cups; 3,231 less than one cup; and 2,928 none. Over the following 11 years, 1,418 of the women reported on surveys that they had been newly diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. After adjusting the data for some of the other diabetes risk factors, women who drank more than six cups of any type of coffee per day were 22 percent less likely than those who drank no coffee to be diagnosed with diabetes; those who drank more than six cups of decaffeinated coffee per day had a 33 percent reduction in risk compared with those who drank none.........

Posted by: JoAnn      Permalink         Source


June 26, 2006, 10:40 PM CT

Memory Loss In People With Diabetics

Memory Loss In People With Diabetics
Scientists at the University of Edinburgh are aiming to pinpoint why diabetes can cause memory loss and mental decline. A thousand people will take part in the study, the largest of its kind ever undertaken in the UK.

The research team will ask people with Type 2 diabetes -associated with an increased risk of memory impairment and dementia -aged 60-75 years to complete puzzle-based tests and have their heart function and blood sugar levels measured. Follow up tests four years later will find out if there have been any changes in brain function.

Dr Mark Strachan, an honorary senior lecturer at the University and a consultant in diabetes and endocrinology at the Western General Hospital, said: "People with type 2 diabetes are at increased risk of developing problems with memory and problem-solving abilities. Eventhough the cause of these abnormalities is not understood, various risk factors associated with diabetes may be important. For example, in some cases, high blood sugar levels can be damaging to small blood vessels in the eyes, nerves and kidneys and there is evidence that the same damage - microvascular disease - can occur in the brains of people with diabetes.

"The main aim of this study is to find out which risk factors, including microvascular disease, inflammation and alterations in hormone levels are linked to altered brain function in people with diabetes. This information is crucial in determining the cause of diabetes-related memory problems and other changes in brain function such as problem-solving abilities and attention span." He added: "Diabetes affects around three per cent of the UK population, and about 170,000 people in Scotland are known to be affected. The prevalence of diabetes is increasing but we are better at treating its complications, such as heart disease. As a result, people with diabetes are likely to live longer and so cognitive problems are likely to become a much bigger issue."........

Posted by: JoAnn      Permalink         Source


June 24, 2006, 11:38 PM CT

NASA Joins Fight Against Diabetes

NASA Joins Fight Against Diabetes
NASA image processing technology used to explore orbital images of Earth and distant worlds is being modified for diabetes research.

Researchers at The George Washington University, Washington, and Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y., helped modify the technology, which has greatly increased the speed of the research. "NASA technology combined with our modifications has provided us with new tools for fighting diabetes," said Murray Loew, director of the Biomedical Engineering Program and professor of engineering at The George Washington University's School of Engineering and Applied Science.

Diabetes afflicts more than 20 million Americans. It is caused by the body's inability to regulate glucose, a sugar that cells use for energy. The hormone insulin regulates blood glucose levels by unlocking the interior of cells and allowing glucose in blood to pass through the cell wall. Insulin is manufactured in beta cells in the pancreas. Microscopic structures called granules carry insulin toward the cell wall of the beta cells, where it is secreted in response to glucose levels in the blood.

Two types of diabetes exist. In Type I diabetes, pancreatic cells are destroyed. In Type II diabetes, either pancreatic cells don't secrete enough insulin, or cells in the body lose their responsiveness to insulin, or both problems happen at once. Both types of diabetes cause glucose to build up in the blood instead of being delivered to the interior of cells, where it is needed or would be stored. Life-threatening effects include coma, heart disease, kidney damage, nerve damage, blindness, and loss of limbs.........

Posted by: JoAnn      Permalink         Source


June 20, 2006, 11:59 PM CT

Children Of Diabetics Show Signs Of Atherosclerosis

Children Of Diabetics Show Signs Of Atherosclerosis
The blood vessels of people whose parents both have type 2 diabetes do not respond as well to changes in blood flow as those of people without a family history of diabetes, even if they do not have diabetes themselves, as per a new study in the June 20, 2006, issue of the Journal of the American College of Cardiology.

"We find that offspring of type 2 diabetic parents have endothelial dysfunction, even when they do not have diabetes. If early therapy can prevent progression of atherosclerosis, then identifying groups of persons at risk for diabetes in whom early atherosclerosis may be present is clinically important," said Allison B. Goldfine, M.D. from the Joslin Diabetes Center and Brigham and Women's Hospital in Boston, Massachusetts.

None of the 38 adults (mid- to late-30s) in this study had diabetes, but half of them were the offspring of two diabetic parents. The scientists restricted blood flow in the arms of the participants using a blood pressure cuff. Then, using ultrasound, they compared how blood vessels in the arms of participants responded to the surge in blood flow when the cuff was released. Blood vessel responsiveness was impaired in all 19 participants (9 men and 10 women) whose parents had diabetes.

Diabetes is a leading cause of heart disease. Other studies have linked higher blood sugar levels to impaired responsiveness of the lining of blood vessels (endothelial dysfunction); but this is the first study to demonstrate that even when blood sugar is below the diabetic range, modest increases in blood sugar can contribute to endothelial dysfunction. Endothelial dysfunction in this population shows a predisposition to atherosclerosis.........

Posted by: JoAnn      Permalink         Source


June 19, 2006, 9:23 PM CT

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Posted by: Janet      Permalink


June 15, 2006, 11:56 PM CT

Pregnancy Complications Still High For Women With Diabetes

Pregnancy Complications Still High For Women With Diabetes
Perinatal mortality and congenital anomalies in babies of women with type 1 or type 2 diabetes in England, WalesThe risk of death and major birth defects are still high in babies born to women with diabetes, despite an international strategy to raise standards of diabetes care, say scientists as per a research findings published on www.bmj.com today.

They also warn that these problems will get worse as the number of young women diagnosed with type 1 and type 2 diabetes continues to rise.

Scientists analysed deaths shortly after birth (perinatal mortality) and congenital anomalies in babies born to women with type 1 or type 2 diabetes who delivered between 1 March 2002 and 28 February 2003 in England, Wales, and Northern Ireland.

Of 2,359 women with diabetes, 1,707 had type 1 diabetes and 652 had type 2 diabetes. Women with type 2 diabetes were more likely to come from an ethnic minority group and from a deprived area.

Perinatal mortality was similar in babies of women with type 1 (31.7 per 1000 births) and type 2 diabetes (32.3 per 1000 births), and was nearly four times higher than that in the general maternity population.

The rate of major congenital anomaly (mainly heart and nervous system defects) was 46 per 1000 births in women with diabetes (48 per 1000 births for type 1 diabetes and 43 per 1000 for type 2 diabetes), more than double than that in the general maternity population.........

Posted by: JoAnn      Permalink         Source


June 10, 2006, 4:53 PM CT

Possible Effects Of Actos Beyond Glycemic Control

Possible Effects Of Actos Beyond Glycemic Control
Scientists today at the American Diabetes Association (ADA) 66th Annual Scientific Sessions presented data showing the relationship between baseline characteristics and cardiac risk factors in patients enrolled in a new clinical trial called CHICAGO (Carotid intima-media tHICkness in Atherosclerosis using pioGlitazOne). This is the largest and longest study to examine the effects of ACTOS on measures of the atherosclerotic disease process in patients with type 2 diabetes, most of whom had no clinical evidence of heart disease.

"While earlier and smaller studies found that ACTOS reduced carotid intima-media thickness, given the size and duration of the CHICAGO trial, we hope to gather further information about the effect of ACTOS on blood vessel health and atherosclerosis," said Theodore Mazzone, M.D., F.A.C.P., professor of medicine and director of the Section of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism at the University of Illinois at Chicago. "We look forward to further study findings, as we hope they can provide important information and insight about management of cardiovascular disease in people with type 2 diabetes."

The CHICAGO trial is an 18-month, multicenter, randomized study that has enrolled 439 patients with type 2 diabetes, all from the Chicago area, thus the name of the study. The primary goal was to compare the effects of ACTOS versus glimepiride, a sulfonylurea, on carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), defined as the thickness of the inner lining of a patient's neck arteries. It is also assessing the occurrence of cardiovascular events (i.e., death, heart attack and stroke) and cardiovascular disease risk factors among patients with type 2 diabetes.........

Posted by: JoAnn      Permalink         Source


June 8, 2006, 0:14 AM CT

Blacks With Diabetes Are Under-Diagnosed for Obesity

Blacks With Diabetes Are Under-Diagnosed for Obesity
Obesity is under-diagnosed in people with diabetes overall and particularly in African-Americans, even though both conditions are more prevalent in African-Americans than whites, a new study finds.

The data were gleaned from a community health study conducted in Charleston, S.C., part of the Center for Disease Control and Prevention's Healthy People 2010, a large-scale initiative to track and improve the health of people in the United States.

The authors, led by Diane Neal, Ph.D., an epidemiologist at the Medical University of South Carolina in Charleston, analyzed the records of 265 people with diabetes and a body mass index of 30 or greater, which is classified as obese. Three times as a number of obese whites had been given a diagnosis of obesity as had obese African-Americans.

The authors concluded that "there is under-diagnosis of obesity among people with diabetes mellitus" in their study population. "Further, we think that there exists racial disparity in both the prevalence of obesity and its diagnosis," they wrote in the CDC's REACH 2010 supplement to the current issue of the Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved.

Obesity places people who are at risk for a variety of diseases and disorders, including high blood pressure, high cholesterol, heart disease, stroke, arthritis, sleep and respiratory problems and certain cancers. People with diabetes who are obese are at even greater risk than the general population of obese people. Diagnosing obesity is important because it leads physicians to encourage and assist patients with weight-loss strategies.........

Posted by: JoAnn      Permalink         Source



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Type-2 Diabetes
Type-2 diabetes is the most common form of diabetes, accounting for 90% of cases diabetes. This disease affects nearly 17 million Americans and is the seventh leading cause of death in the United States. Even though 17 million Americans have type-2 diabetes only half of these people are aware that they have diabetes. The death rate in patients with diabetes may be up to 11 times higher than in persons without the disease. The occurrence of diabetes in persons 45 to 64 years of age is 7 percent, but the proportion increases significantly in persons 65 years of age or older. Type-2 diabetes accounts for more than 90% of all diabetes worldwide.

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