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Cervical Cancer News Blog From Medicineworld.Org


February 1, 2010, 8:23 AM CT

Curing More Cervical Cancer Patients

Curing More Cervical Cancer Patients

Cervical cancer is highly curable when caught early. But in a third of cases, the tumor responds poorly to treatment or recurs later, when cure is much less likely.

Quicker identification of non-responding tumors appears to be possible using a new mathematical model developed by scientists at the Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center-Arthur G. James Cancer Hospital and Richard J. Solove Research Institute.

The model uses information from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans taken before and during treatment to monitor changes in tumor size. That information is plugged into the model to predict whether a particular case is responding well to therapy. If not, the patient can be changed to a more aggressive or experimental treatment midway through therapy, something not possible now.

The study, reported in the journal Cancer Research, uses MRI scans and outcome information from 80 cervical cancer patients receiving a standard course of radiation treatment designed to cure their cancer.

"The model enables us to better interpret clinical data and predict therapy outcomes for individual patients," says principal investigator Jian Z. Wang, assistant professor of radiation medicine and a radiation physicist at the OSUCCC-James.

"The outcome predictions presented in this paper were solely based on changes in tumor volume as derived from MRI scans, which can be easily accessed even in community hospitals," Wang says. "The model is very robust and can provide a prediction accuracy of 90 percent for local tumor control and recurrence".........

Posted by: Emily      Read more         Source


January 14, 2010, 8:00 AM CT

Who's afraid of the HPV vaccine?

Who's afraid of the HPV vaccine?
A newly released study concludes that people tend to match their risk perceptions about policy issues with their cultural values, which may explain the intense disagreement about proposals to vaccinate elementary-school girls against human-papillomavirus (HPV). The study also says people's values shape their perceptions of expert opinion on the vaccine.

HPV is a widespread disease that, when sexually transmitted, can cause cervical cancer. In October of 2009, the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommended that the vaccine be given to all girls ages 11 or 12. However, the recommendation has been mired in controversy, and so far adopted in only one state and the District of Columbia.

An online experiment involving more than 1,500 U.S. adults reveals that individuals who have cultural values that favor authority and individualism perceive the vaccine as risky, in part because they believe it will lead girls to engage in unsafe sex. But individuals with cultural values that favor gender equality and pro-community/government involvement in basic health care are more likely to see the vaccine as low risk and high benefit.

The study was funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF) and is being published online this week in the journal Law and Human Behavior. It observed that people exposed to unattributed, balanced information about HPV vaccines tended to produce something called "biased assimilation," a phenomenon in which culturally-identifiable groups draw opposing conclusions and become more divided rather than less divided as they consider evidence.........

Posted by: Emily      Read more         Source


October 15, 2009, 5:39 PM CT

Girls aware of HPV vaccine's benefits

Girls aware of HPV vaccine's benefits
Contrary to concerns that the human papillomavirus vaccine might promote promiscuity, a national survey of girls and young women observed that the majority of respondents did not believe the HPV vaccine protected them against other sexually transmitted infections.

The study, conducted by University of Illinois at Chicago and University of Chicago researchers, appears online and in the recent issue of the Journal of Adolescent Health

The findings are reassuring in that girls and young women did not believe that the vaccine provided benefits beyond protecting them from HPV, said Dr. Rachel Caskey, assistant professor of pediatrics and general internal medicine at UIC and main author of the study. "We also observed that they did not believe that they could stop cervical cancer screening, or pap smears, which is critical".

Scientists used a national sample, representative of the U.S. population, to conduct an online survey of more than 1,000 females ages 13 to 26.

The data provide some of the first nationally representative estimates of both adolescents' and young women's adoption of the HPV vaccine, barriers to vaccination, and sources of information about HPV and the HPV vaccine, as per the researchers.

Knowledge about the HPV virus itself ran the gamut, said Caskey. Some people knew absolutely nothing and a few people were moderately informed. Knowledge about the HPV vaccine, however, was better.........

Posted by: Mark      Read more         Source


September 24, 2009, 7:01 AM CT

Vaccination could eradicate cervical cancer

Vaccination could eradicate cervical cancer
Cervical cancer could be eradicated within the next 50 years if countries implement national screening programmes based on detection of the human papilloma virus (HPV), which causes the disease, together with vaccination programmes against the virus, as per a cervical cancer screening expert.

Professor Jack Cuzick told Europe's largest cancer congress, ECCO 15 ESMO 34 [1], in Berlin today (Thursday 24 September) that while the current HPV vaccines protect against two cancer-causing strains of the HPV virus, soon there would be vaccines available that protect against nine types. If vaccination were to be combined with HPV screening (which is much more sensitive than the currently used Pap smear test), then eventually the cancer would disappear in those countries that had successfully implemented national programmes. However, this would require political will and effort at both national and European level.

"It's important to say up front that the HPV is responsible for all cervix cancer," said Prof Cuzick. "If you can eradicate the virus, the cancer will not appear. So the current vaccine holds the promise of eradicating about 70-75% of cervical cancers (caused by HPV types 16 and 18), and there may be some additional cross protection amongst types that are closely correlation to 16 or 18, in particular 31, 45 and a little bit of 33. There are new vaccines being planned that will vaccinate against nine types. If they are successful, there should be no need to screen women that have been vaccinated at all. That's the long-term future: vaccination and no screening. After about 50 years, we could see cervical cancer disappearing".........

Posted by: Emily      Read more         Source


August 20, 2009, 6:40 AM CT

Women with abnormal paps

Women with abnormal paps
Less than half of Ontario women with abnormal Pap tests receive recommended and potentially life-saving follow-up care, as per a new women's health study by scientists at St. Michael's Hospital and the Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences (ICES). What's more, low-income women are less likely to be screened for cancer in comparison to their high-income counterparts.

"Cervical cancer is one of the most preventable forms of cancer, yet in Ontario more than one million women have not been screened, and a disproportionate number of these are women living in lower-income communities," says Dr. Arlene Bierman, a doctor at St. Michael's Hospital and principal investigator of the Project for an Ontario Women's Health Evidence-Based Report (POWER). "We need to make special efforts to reach women who are screened, but do not receive the necessary follow-up and may eventually fall through the cracks. To improve surveillance and therapy, we need a system that ensures all abnormal Pap tests are followed-up so that Ontario women can receive the best care possible," added Dr. Bierman, a researcher at ICES.

The joint study titled POWER (the Project for an Ontario Women's Health Evidence-Based Report), from St. Michael's Hospital and the Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences (ICES), is the first in the province to provide a comprehensive overview of women's health in relation to gender, income, education, ethnicity and geography. The findings are detailed in the report titled Cancer the second to be released this year as part of the study. Findings can be used by policymakers and health-care providers to improve access, quality and outcomes of care for Ontario women. Dr. Monika Krzyzanowska, a medical oncologist at Princess Margaret Hospital/University Health Network is the main author on the cancer chapter. The POWER Study is funded by Echo: Improving Women's Health in Ontario, an agency of the Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care.........

Posted by: Emily      Read more         Source


January 28, 2009, 6:18 AM CT

HPV18 DNA levels are not prognostic for cervical lesions

HPV18 DNA levels are not prognostic for cervical lesions
Perhaps surprisingly, the number of copies of the carcinogenic human papillomavirus type 18 (HPV18) relative to cellular DNA is not linked to the likelihood of progression to advanced premalignant lesions of the cervix, as per a research studyin the January 27 online issue of the Journal of the National Cancer Institute.

Two types of HPV are most frequently linked to cervical cancer, HPV16 and HPV18. Prior studies showed that the number of HPV16 copies per cell correlated with an increasing risk of progression to cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or 3 (CIN2-3). The prognostic significance of HPV18 DNA level is not known.

In the current study, Long Fu Xi, M.D, Ph.D., of the University of Washington in Seattle, and his colleagues compared the number of copies of HPV18 DNA relative to cellular DNA at baseline with a woman's risk of progressing to CIN2-3. The 303 study participants were drawn from the Atypical Squamous Cells of Undetermined Significance and Low-Grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesion Triage Study.

During the 2-year study period, 92 women were diagnosed with CIN2-3. Among women with a cytologic diagnosis of low- or high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions at enrollment, HPV18 DNA level was lower in women with CIN2-3 than those without CIN2-3.........

Posted by: Emily      Read more         Source


September 3, 2008, 6:42 PM CT

Higher rates of cervical cancer amongst immigrants

Higher rates of cervical cancer amongst immigrants
Gynaecological screening tests for cervical cancer have been available to all women in Sweden for almost four decades. Despite this, a number of immigrant women have a higher risk of developing the disease than Swedish-born women, as per a new study from Karolinska Institutet.

This is especially the case for women from other Nordic countries and Central America, the differences being associated with, amongst other things, variation in the occurence rate of the Human Pappiloma Virus (HPV) around the world. HPV is a significant risk factor for cervical cancer.

"But there are other risk factors too, such as smoking, sexual habits and not taking screening tests, which make it interesting to compare cervical cancer rates between different groups of immigrant women in Sweden and native Swedes," says Professor Pär Sparen, who has led the study at the Department of Medical epidemiology and Biostatistics.

The study included more than 750,000 resident immigrant women from different countries, all of whom are registered on Karolinska Institutets national database of womens health. During the period under study (1968 to 2004) there were 1,991 cases of cervical cancer in this group. Compared with Swedish-born women in general, this represents a slightly higher risk of developing the disease (10 per cent). Also, the incidence proportion of cervical cancer amongst women who had immigrated to Sweden was lower than amongst women in their respective countries.........

Posted by: Emily      Read more         Source


August 20, 2008, 8:07 PM CT

Cervical cancer prevention should focus on vaccination

Cervical cancer prevention should focus on vaccination
The cost-effectiveness of vaccination in the United States against human papillomavirus (HPV), a sexually-transmitted virus that causes cervical cancer, will be optimized by achieving universal vaccine coverage in young adolescent girls, by targeting initial "catch-up" efforts to vaccinate women younger than 21 years of age, and by revising current screening policies, as per an analysis by Harvard School of Public Health (HSPH) scientists in the August 21, 2008 issue of The New England Journal (NEJM).

In the U.S. in 2007, cervical cancer developed in more than 11,000 women and killed 3,600 women. Cervical cancer is caused by infection with high-risk "oncogenic" types of HPV, also linked to other cancers. Worldwide, HPV types 16 (HPV-16) and 18 (HPV-18) cause approximately 70% of cervical cancer cases. Vaccines against HPV-16 and HPV-18 appear to be highly efficacious in preventing HPV-16 and HPV-18 infections and cervical disease in females who have not previously been infected with these types. The quadrivalent vaccine currently licensed in the U.S. also prevents low-risk HPV types 6 and 11 (HPV-6 and HPV-11) infections, which are responsible for most genital warts and juvenile-onset recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (JORRP), a rare but severe respiratory condition commonly diagnosed in infancy that may be correlation to a mother's infection with genital warts.........

Posted by: Emily      Read more         Source


November 29, 2007, 10:40 PM CT

Post-treatment PET scans for cervical cancer patients

Post-treatment PET scans for cervical cancer patients
Whole-body PET (positron emission tomography) scans done three months after completion of cervical cancer treatment can ensure that patients are disease-free or warn that further interventions are needed, as per a research studyat Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis.

"This is the first time we can say that we have a reliable test to follow cervical cancer patients after treatment," says Julie K. Schwarz, M.D., Ph.D., a Barnes-Jewish Hospital resident in the Department of Radiation Oncology. "We ask them to come back for a follow-up visit about three months after therapy is finished, and we perform a PET scan. If the scan shows a complete response to therapy, we can say with confidence that they are going to do extremely well. That's really powerful."

Schwarz and his colleagues published their study in the Nov. 21, 2007 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA).

Without a test like PET, it can be difficult to tell whether therapy has eliminated cervical tumors, Schwarz says. That's because small tumors are hard to detect with pelvic exams, and overt symptoms, such as leg swelling, don't occur until tumors grow quite large. Furthermore, CT and MRI scans often don't differentiate tumor tissue from surrounding tissues, Pap tests can be inaccurate because of tissue changes induced by radiation treatment, and no blood test exists to detect the presence of cervical cancer.........

Posted by: Emily      Read more         Source


November 19, 2007, 8:30 PM CT

New HPV vaccine under study

New HPV vaccine under study
A new vaccine against nine of the most harmful strains of human papillomavirus is under study at the Medical College of Georgia.

The vaccine, called nine-valent, is being compared with Gardasil, a quadrivalent vaccine already on the market that works against the two most deadly HPV types.

"We're testing Gardasil against three different doses of the investigational vaccine," says Dr. Daron Ferris, family medicine doctor and director of the MCG Gynecologic Cancer Prevention Center. "This study will determine the best dose of the new vaccine and whether it is safe, well-tolerated and effective in preventing HPV infection and disease compared with what's already out there".

Gardasil, approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in 2006, protects against HPV types 16 and 18, which cause about 70 percent of HPV-related cervical cancer cases, and types 6 and 11, which cause about 90 percent of genital wart cases.

The new drug could prevent infection from those four types and five other cancer-causing types, Dr. Ferris says.

"Women infected with those five types of HPV also have an increased risk of developing severe premalignant cervical disease and cervical cancer," he says. "While genital warts go away on their own in most cases, cervical premalignant lesions are less likely to disappear without therapy".........

Posted by: Emily      Read more         Source


October 17, 2007, 8:21 PM CT

HPV test beats Pap in detecting cervical cancer

HPV test beats Pap in detecting cervical cancer
A new study led by McGill University scientists shows that the human papillomavirus (HPV) screening test is far more accurate than the traditional Pap test in detecting cervical cancer. The first round of the Canadian Cervical Cancer Screening Trial (CCCaST), led by Dr. Eduardo Franco, Director of the Division of Cancer Epidemiology at McGill's Faculty of Medicine, concluded that the HPV test's ability to accurately detect pre-malignant lesions without generating false negatives was 94.6%, as opposed to 55.4% for the Pap test.

The results of the study, first-authored by Dr. Francos former McGill PhD student Dr. Marie-Hlne Mayrand of the Centre hospitalier de l'Universit de Montral (CHUM), with colleagues from McGill, Universit de Montral, the Newfoundland and Labrador Public Health Laboratory and McMaster University, are reported in the October 18 issue of The New England Journal (NEJM).

CCCaST is the first randomized controlled trial in North America of HPV testing as a stand-alone screening test for cervical cancer. The first round followed 10,154 women aged 30 to 69 in Montreal, Quebec and St. John's, Newfoundland who were enrolled in the study from 2002 to 2005. The study was funded by a grant from the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR).

The study concluded that while the HPV test's sensitivity was nearly 40% greater than the Pap tests, the Pap did, however, slightly edge out HPV for accuracy on the specificity scale -- its ability to accurately detect pre-malignant lesions without generating false positives -- at 96.8% versus 94.1%.........

Posted by: Emily      Read more         Source


February 19, 2007, 9:05 PM CT

New test for most virulent HPV strains

New test for most virulent HPV strains
A test for the two strains of human papillomavirus responsible for most cervical cancers is under study.

The molecular assay uses a cervical scraping, like that for a liquid-based Pap smear, to test for HPV types 16 and 18, responsible for 70 percent of cervical cancers, says Dr. Daron G. Ferris, family medicine doctor and director of the Gynecologic Cancer Prevention Center at the Medical College of Georgia.

"Data from a National Cancer Institute trial shows that if you have a genital infection with HPV types 16 or 18, your chance of getting moderate to severe premalignant cervical changes or cancer is much higher than if you have one of the other types," says Dr. Ferris, a principal investigator on the national study evaluating the assay.

The NCI study followed women infected with different types of the typically slow-acting virus over 10 years. It found women infected with type 18 had a 15 percent risk of malignant or pre-malignant changes after 10 years, those with type 16 had a 20 percent increased risk while those with the 11 other strains had a collective risk of 1-2 percent.

"Clearly, there is a big difference between HPV types 16 and 18 and all the other cancer-causing strains of HPV," says Dr. Ferris.

The type-specific assay, developed by Third Wave Technologies, Inc., in Madison, Wis., is being tested along with an assay that looks for the presence of 14 types of cancer-causing HPV. A test that detects 13 types of HPV already is commercially available, so the new test could become the second non-type-specific HPV test on the market.........

Posted by: Emily      Read more         Source


January 30, 2007, 9:33 PM CT

Treatment For Cervical Dysplasia

Treatment For Cervical Dysplasia
Temple University Hospital's Center For Women's Health is participating in a national study to determine the safety and effectiveness of an investigational therapy for cervical dysplasia. As per the American Cancer Society, approximately 500,000 women are diagnosed with high-grade cervical dysplasia each year, with roughly 10,000 cases progressing to cervical cancer.

For numerous women afflicted with the common sexually transmitted disease known as human papillomavirus (HPV), the immune system can not prevent certain high-risk strains of the virus from causing cervical dysplasia, a common precursor to cervical cancer. "The expected widespread availability of two preventive vaccines may lower the occurence rate of HPV infection and reduce the risk of cervical cancer," said Enrigue Hernandez, The Abraham Roth Professor and Chair of the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology at Temple University Hospital and School of Medicine. "However, for those women already infected with HPV, and those who will become infected, there are emerging non-surgical options in development."

HPV vaccines are expected to be a significant advance in women's healthcare, but they will not protect all women from cervical cancer. "Prophylactic vaccines will probably not help the more than 350,000 women in the U.S. already infected with HPV who have moderate to severe cervical dysplasia, a premalignant condition," explained Hernandez.........

Posted by: Emily      Read more         Source


November 2, 2006, 5:29 PM CT

Smoking Related Cancers

Smoking Related Cancers
There are currently about fifty million smokers in the U.S. and there are another fifty million ex-smokers. Cigarette smoking has been linked to several human malignancies. Some of these links like the relationship between smoking and lung cancer are well established. In some other cases the relationship between smoking and cancer is not very well established. However several studies have clearly shown the malignant potential of chemical substances in cigarette smoke. This article is an attempt to summarize some of the known links between cigarette smoking and caner.

Lung cancer

Lung cancer has a strong association with smoking. On average, smokers increase their risk of lung cancer between 5 and 10-fold compared to never smokers. Even though lung cancer can occur in non-smokers, it should be appreciated that more than 90 percent of all lung cancer patients are current or past smokers. Some sub types of lung cancer like small cell lung cancer is more strongly associated with smoking than others. There is plenty of research evidence in the literature linking lung cancer to smoking. A recent study published in the British Journal Of Medicine (Ref: BMJ 1997) concluded that the accumulated evidence support the fact secondhand exposure to cigarette smoke could lead to lung cancer. ........

Posted by: Agarwaal MD      Permalink


November 1, 2006, 4:51 AM CT

HPV Test Is A Better Long-term Predictor

HPV Test Is A Better Long-term Predictor HPV Virus
The best initial cervical cancer screening tool for younger women is still the traditional Pap smear. However, a large Danish study has observed that for older women (age 40 and older), a test for human papillomavirus (HPV) is a much more effective way to screen for potential cancer.

The reason, report scientists in the November 1 issue of Cancer Research, is that HPV infection is both frequent and transient in younger women, and they would often test positive for HPV when no actual risk of cervical cancer existed. But, in older women, HPV infection is rarer and more persistent, putting a woman at substantial risk for the disease before changes in cervical cells, detected by Pap smears, are obvious.

"We have documented that a single HPV test can actually predict older women at risk for cervical cancer better than a single Pap smear can," said the study's senior author, Susanne Krüger Kjaer, M.D., professor and head of the Department of Virus, Hormones and Cancer at the Danish Cancer Society.

The scientists specifically observed that the absolute risk of developing cervical cancer in an older woman who tests positive for HPV is greater than 20 percent within a 10-year period. They also note that most women who test positive for HPV also test negative on a Pap smear given at the same time.........

Posted by: Emily      Permalink         Source


August 24, 2006, 10:12 PM CT

HIV Drug To Prevent Cervical Cancer

HIV Drug To Prevent Cervical Cancer
Scientists at the University of Manchester are in the process of developing a topical therapy against the human papilloma virus (HPV) which is responsible for pre-malignant and malignant disease of the cervix as well as other genital malignancies.

In the UK a number of thousands of women undergo surgery to remove premalignant lesions of every year. Instead they may be able to apply a simple cream or pessary to the affected area. The discovery may be even more significant in developing countries which lack surgical facilities and where HPV related cervical cancer is one of the most common forms of cancer in women.

Drs Ian and Lynne Hampson at the School of Medicine's Division of Human Development and Reproduction are in the process of developing the therapy from a type of drug that is given orally to treat HIV. This protease inhibitor can selectively kill cultured HPV infected cervical cancer cells and, since it is already available as a liquid formulation, it is possible it may work by direct application to the cervix.

The research, funded by the Humane Research Trust, is would be reported in the recent issue of the journal Anti-Viral Therapy (2006; 11(6): in press) and is also being presented at the International HPV meeting in Prague on 5 September.........

Posted by: Emily      Permalink         Source


June 19, 2006, 9:23 PM CT

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Posted by: Janet      Permalink


June 11, 2006, 11:28 AM CT

Approaches To Cervical Cancer Prevention

Approaches To Cervical Cancer Prevention
JHPIEGO demonstrates that a "single visit approach" using Visual Inspection with Acetic acid (VIA) is safe, acceptable, feasible and cost-effective.

Cervical cancer is the leading cause of death among women in developing countries. From December 4-7, 2005, Ministries of Health, U.S. government agencies, leading clinical experts and reproductive health professionals from the United States, Asia, Africa and Latin America will convene in Bangkok, Thailand to address cervical cancer prevention in low-resource settings.

With funding from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and Glaxo Smith Kline and Digene, JHPIEGO, an international health affiliate of The Johns Hopkins University, is sponsoring this meeting "Preventing Cervical Cancer: From Research to Practice", in collaboration with the Chulalongkorn University Faculty of Medicine.

The Royal Thai Ministry of Public Health and JHPIEGO's President and CEO Leslie D. Mancuso, PhD, RN, FAAN, welcome an international panel of speakers, including Paul D. Blumenthal, Professor at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Dr. Khunying Kobchitt Limpaphayom, JHPIEGO's Cervical Cancer Project Director, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University and representatives from the World Health Organization. More than 100 participants from more than 15 countries will learn about innovative cervical cancer screening techniques and how to implement a high-quality, sustainable program. "JHPIEGO is honored to host this global meeting to share the proven, life-saving strategies, innovative service delivery and training approaches, as well as community mobilization and education techniques. Hopefully we'll also inspire attending countries to adopt these screening methods. On a scientific-level, we're talking about reducing the incidence of invasive cervical cancer in a cost-effective way. But on a human-level, we're talking about saving mothers, grandmothers, wives, sisters and friends," comments Dr. Mancuso.........

Posted by: Janet      Permalink         Source



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Did you know?
Low-income women with abnormal Pap tests who participated in a program that combines screening and treatment in one visit had a higher rate of treatment and follow-up than women who did not participate, according to a study in the November 2 issue of JAMA.

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