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April 3, 2011, 9:32 AM CT

Genetic variation cuts bladder cancer risk

Genetic variation cuts bladder cancer risk
Normal bladder

A common genetic variation links to both bladder cancer risk and to the length of protective caps found on the ends of chromosomes, researchers at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center reported today at the AACR 102nd Annual Meeting.

These endings or tips, called telomeres, guard against chromosomal damage and genomic instability that can lead to cancer and other diseases.

"We found a single point of variation in the genome strongly linked to a 19 percent decrease in bladder cancer risk. The same variant also is associated with longer telomeres, which accounts for part of the overall reduction in risk," said first author Jian Gu, Ph.D., assistant professor in MD Anderson's Department of Epidemiology.

Telomere length diminishes with age, Gu said, and short telomeres are linked to age-related diseases such as stroke, Alzheimer's disease, diabetes, cardiovascular disease and cancer.

Prior studies separately tied telomere length either to cancer risk or to genetic variation. The paper by Gu and his colleagues is the first to make both connections.

"Understanding the complex genetic regulation of telomere length and its relation to the causes of bladder and other types of cancer will help develop therapies or changes in lifestyle to reduce cancer risk," said senior author Xifeng Wu, M.D., Ph.D., professor and chair of MD Anderson's Department of Epidemiology.........

Posted by: Mark      Read more         Source


October 12, 2009, 7:08 AM CT

Challenging traditional bladder treatment decision

Challenging traditional bladder treatment decision
ATLANTA--A statistical model can accurately predict which patients will have poor outcomes after bladder surgery and can determine the need for chemotherapy. The analysis, to be reported in the December 1, 2009 issue of CANCER, a peer-evaluated journal of the American Cancer Society, concludes that the model, which considers both how far the cancer has spread and other information, such as how the cancer cells look under the microscope and the time between diagnosis and surgery, could better identify patients who need to undergo further therapy.

A number of individuals with bladder cancer have surgery to remove the bladder as an initial therapy. Following surgery, doctors must decide whether to recommend that the patient receive chemotherapy to kill any remaining cancer cells. Chemotherapy is typically recommended only for patients with higher stage disease. However, it is widely accepted that while a number of patients receive chemotherapy unnecessarily, some patients with low stage disease who are not referred to chemotherapy nonetheless experience a cancer recurrence.

Scientists led by Andrew J. Vickers, PhD, of Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center in New York City set out to determine whether use of a previously published prediction model to inform medical decision making would lead to superior clinical outcomes. To demonstrate their findings, they compared the clinical outcomes of the different routes in which bladder cancer patients would be referred to chemotherapy: based only on cancer stage, as is current practice, or based on the bladder cancer prediction model.........

Posted by: Mark      Read more         Source


September 25, 2007, 9:41 PM CT

HPV might cause bladder cancer

HPV might cause bladder cancer
HPV
The Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is considered the cause of one of the most important sexually transmitted diseases nowadays, and affects both men and women. HPV is so common in our society that only people who have never had sexual relations can be sure that they have not been exposed to this disease. However, as with other microbes, people infected do not necessarily develop the disease, because, in most cases, it only means the colonization. Only some of the people colonized will fall ill with different processes.

Nevertheless, the development of this disease might have serious consequences: It is probable that HPV is correlation to bladder cancer, as per a recent study carried out by the Department of Microbiology of the University of Granada, in collaboration with the Department of Biostatistics and the Urology Service of San Cecilio Hospital.

Several prior studies point out the possibility that HPV might cause, in certain subjects, some types of cancer: cervical, anus, vulva, penis, oropharyngeal (the middle part of the throat behind the mouth including the back of the tongue, the soft palate, the side and back walls of the throat) and bladder cancer. The scientists from Granada have focused their study on bladder cancer and have found some evidence of the relationship between both diseases. Nevertheless, they warn that further research on this matter is needed, especially in order rule out the assumption that this infection is only a viral colonization and does not cause cancer (that is to say, the tumor appeared before the tissue was infected by the virus).........

Posted by: Mark      Read more         Source


July 5, 2007, 9:34 PM CT

Simple Bladder Cancer Test

Simple Bladder Cancer Test
University of Florida scientists have identified a set of proteins that appear to signal the presence of bladder cancer, a discovery they hope will lead to a simple, fast and noninvasive test that can detect the disease early.

Working with colleagues at the University of Michigan, the researchers used advances in technology to isolate nearly 200 proteins from the urine of patients with and without bladder cancer. Several appear promising as potential biomarkers, including one that studies conducted elsewhere have already associated with liver and ovary cancer. The findings, available online, are scheduled would be reported in the July 6 print edition of the American Chemical Societys Journal of Proteome Research.

Developing a simple dipstick test that would better single out patients whose symptoms are associated with cancer would enable those who simply have an infection to avoid a battery of screenings that typically include cystoscopy, a painful procedure that uses a small camera threaded through the urethra to image the bladders interior. Such a test also could be used to detect cancer sooner, possibly before its signs even surface.

With any cancer, the earlier you find it the better because its not as aggressive in its early stages, and of course its much easier to remove any cancer anywhere in the body if you catch it while its relatively small, said Steve Goodison, an associate professor of surgery at the UF College of Medicine-Jacksonville.........

Posted by: Janet      Read more         Source


June 13, 2007, 1:30 PM CT

Lung and bladder cancer after arsenic exposure

Lung and bladder cancer after arsenic exposure
Image courtesy of Liver pool Middle School
Arsenic exposure appears to continue causing lung and bladder cancer deaths years after exposure ends, as per a research studypublished online June 12 in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute

Arsenic is a known cause of lung and bladder cancer, but scientists dont yet know how long cancer risk remains elevated after arsenic exposure. The drinking water in a region of northern Chile became contaminated with very high amounts of arsenic beginning in 1958. In the 1970s, construction of water therapy plants in the region led to a decline in arsenic concentration. This sudden rise and fall of arsenic levels gave scientists the opportunity to investigate the period between first and last exposure to high levels of arsenic and subsequent mortality due arsenic-related cancers, such as bladder and lung cancer.

Guillermo Marshall, Ph.D., of Pontificia Universidad Catlica de Chile in Santiago and his colleagues including collaborators from the University of California, Berkeley, investigated bladder and lung cancer death rates in the region between 1950 and 2000 and compared them with data from a similar region farther south, where the water was not contaminated.

Lung and bladder cancer mortality rates in the area with arsenic-contaminated drinking water began to rise about 10 years after arsenic levels rose. They then continued to climb, peaking between 10 and 20 years after the arsenic levels dropped. At the peak, lung cancer deaths among men and women in the contaminated region were about three times higher than in the control region, while bladder cancer deaths were six times higher in men and 14 times higher in women. The lag time between exposure to a carcinogen and the peak of cancer deaths is commonly difficult to determine, but the size of the study and the record of arsenic exposure aided the researchers.........

Posted by: Scott      Read more         Source


November 2, 2006, 5:29 PM CT

Smoking Related Cancers

Smoking Related Cancers
There are currently about fifty million smokers in the U.S. and there are another fifty million ex-smokers. Cigarette smoking has been linked to several human malignancies. Some of these links like the relationship between smoking and lung cancer are well established. In some other cases the relationship between smoking and cancer is not very well established. However several studies have clearly shown the malignant potential of chemical substances in cigarette smoke. This article is an attempt to summarize some of the known links between cigarette smoking and caner.

Lung cancer

Lung cancer has a strong association with smoking. On average, smokers increase their risk of lung cancer between 5 and 10-fold compared to never smokers. Even though lung cancer can occur in non-smokers, it should be appreciated that more than 90 percent of all lung cancer patients are current or past smokers. Some sub types of lung cancer like small cell lung cancer is more strongly associated with smoking than others. There is plenty of research evidence in the literature linking lung cancer to smoking. A recent study published in the British Journal Of Medicine (Ref: BMJ 1997) concluded that the accumulated evidence support the fact secondhand exposure to cigarette smoke could lead to lung cancer. ........

Posted by: Agarwaal MD      Permalink


June 19, 2006, 9:23 PM CT

Suggest your News Item To Medicineworld

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Posted by: Janet      Permalink


December 25, 2005, 10:32 AM CT

Merry Christmas To All Our Readers

Merry Christmas To All Our Readers
Medicineworld wishes all our readers merry Christmas.

Oh, jingle bells, jingle bells

Jingle all the way

Oh, what fun it is to ride

In a one horse open sleigh

Jingle bells, jingle bells

Jingle all the way

Oh, what fun it is to ride

In a one horse open sleigh........

Daniel      Permalink


December 12, 2005

Phase II Study for Advanced Bladder Cancer

Phase II Study for Advanced Bladder Cancer
Emory Winship Cancer Institute is the only cancer research and treatment facility in Georgia to offer an innovative Phase II clinical trial for transitional cell carcinoma (TCC), a common form of bladder cancer. The clinical trial is testing the efficacy of the investigational drug Vinflunine. Vasily Assikis, MD, assistant professor of hematology and oncology and director of Winship's Prostate Cancer Translational Research Program is principal investigator.

"There is currently no standard treatment for patients with advanced bladder cancer who have received chemotherapy and their cancer is getting worse," said Dr. Assikis. "This study is promising and could make a major impact for that specific patient population." TCC refers to cancers of the layer of cells lining the inside of the bladder, the kidneys, ureters, or the urethra. More than 90 percent of bladder cancers begin in these transitional cells.

The use of Vinflunine as an anti-cancer agent is still in the experimental stage, but studies have demonstrated that the new drug exhibits anti-tumor activity by inhibiting cell division.

The primary purpose of the clinical trial, which is sponsored by Bristol-Myers Squibb, is to assess whether Vinflunine will shrink tumors or slow their growth. Doing so could potentially improve the condition of those patients with locally advanced-staged TCC of the urothelium who have been previously been treated with chemotherapy and whose disease has progressed. Patients participating in the clinical trial will be administered the drug Vinflunine intravenously.........

Mark      Permalink

  • Surgery less likely in older bladder cancer patients (November 16, 2005)
  • FDA Grants Orphan Drug Designation to TOCOSOL Paclitaxel in Bladder Cancer    (January 27, 2005)
  • Gallbladder removal raises colon cancer risk    (August 30, 2005)
  • Halozyme in patients with superficial bladder cancer    (August 16, 2005)
  • Halozyme to initiate chemophase trial in patients with superficial bladder cancer    (August 15, 2005)



  • Did you know?
    A new population-based study has found that patients 75 years of age or older with invasive bladder cancer are less likely to receive the recommended surgical treatment for the disease.The findings "suggest in a sense some undertreatment of our older patients," Dr. Brenda K. Edwards of the National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland, told Reuters Health. However, she noted, the study was unable to gauge the influence of factors such as patient choice, which also could have made surgery less common among older patients.

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