From Medicineworld.org: Neurological manifestations of AIDS
Neurological manifestations of AIDS
Peripheral nerve and root:
Virus or immune related:
Out of all the conditions mentioned above, the following are the most common conditions producing disease in the brain of AIDS patients are the following:
Manifestations of CNS (Central nervous system) toxoplasmosis:
Toxoplasmosis abscess is the most common lesion causing mass effect in the AIDS patient. Is constitutes 70-80% of the cerebral mass lesions in AIDS. It also produces meningo encephalitis and encephalopathy. CNS toxoplasmosis occurs late in the course of HIV infection, usually when the CD4 counts are less than 200 cells per cubic millimeter. Diagnosis is made by examination of spinal fluid, MRI and CT scans. Treatment is by pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine.
Primary CNS lymphoma:
It occurs in approximately 10% of the AIDS patient. It is a type of cancer usually associated with a virus known as Epstein - Barr virus. The patient has mental status changes like confusion and drowsiness, blindness, speaking difficulty, weakness or numbness of limbs. The disease is usually progressive and the patient may die within a few months, occasionally surviving longer with treatment with drugs like methotrexate and corticosteroids.
Diagnostic tests for HIV infection:
Many screening tests are now available to the detection of antibodies to HIV. All of them are based on enzyme-linked immunoassay, which is highly sensitive. The Western blot test is more specific and it is a confirmatory test.
Treatment for HIV infection:
The treatment of HIV infection/AIDS is very difficult. Patient and their family require counseling and education, and frequently, psychiatric support in addition to complex drug regimens. Drug therapy for HIV infection continues to change rapidly. A combination of three drugs AZT, Lamivudine and Indinavir, prolongs the survival of AIDS patient.
Did you know?
Forty to sixty percent of all patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) will develop neurological symptoms One third of these patients present to the doctor initially with neurological complaints. Only approximately 5% of the patients who die with AIDS have a normal brain on autopsy.
Medicineworld.org: Neurological manifestations of AIDS
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