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April 29, 2011, 8:36 AM CT

MRI locates prostate cancer recurrence

MRI locates prostate cancer recurrence

A pelvic MRI scan with IV contrast and rectal balloon is highly effective in identifying local recurrence even at low PSA values in patients with prostate cancer with a rising or persistently elevated PSA after prostatectomy, as per a research studypresented April 29, 2011, at the Cancer Imaging and Radiation Therapy Symposium in Atlanta. The symposium is co-sponsored by the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) and the Radiological Society of North America (RSNA).

Scientists at MD Anderson Cancer Center in Houston reviewed 389 postprostatectomy patients treated between January 2004 and October 2010, with 143 receiving a pelvic MRI to determine if cancer cells were still present in the area of the surgical bed. Thirty-five of those patients had suspicious MRI findings suggesting local recurrence. Twenty-six patients were then biopsied, with 23 showing cancer.

The study showed that about one-third of patients with a biopsy-proven recurrence after suspicious MRI finding had a PSA of less than 1, with several having a PSA as low as 0.3.

A scan of the surgical bed is typically performed after a prostatectomy and before salvage radiation treatment therapy in patients with prostate cancer with a rising PSA to determine a potential recurrence and location of recurrence. An MRI is able to differentiate between soft tissues better than a traditional Computerized axial tomography scan, so the high rates of cancer recurrence picked up by the MRI were not surprising to researchers. What was surprising was the low PSA levels at which the MRI could determine recurrent disease.........

Posted by: Mark      Read more         Source


April 7, 2011, 8:43 AM CT

Parkinson's disease and prostate cancer

Parkinson's disease and prostate cancer
University of Utah School of Medicine scientists have found compelling evidence that Parkinson's disease is linked to an increased risk of prostate cancer and melanoma, and that this increased cancer risk also extends to close and distant relatives of individuals with Parkinson's disease. Eventhough a link between Parkinson's disease and melanoma has been suspected before, this is the first time that an increased risk of prostate cancer has been reported in Parkinson's disease.

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurologic condition that leads to tremors and difficulty with walking, movement, and coordination. Most studies demonstrate that individuals with PD have an overall decreased rate of cancer, with the notable exception of melanoma, the most serious form of skin cancer. Prior research has suggested a possible genetic link between PD and melanoma, but these studies have been limited to first-degree relatives who often share a similar environment, making it difficult to distinguish between genetic and environmental risk factors.

"Neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's disease may share common disease-causing mechanisms with some cancers," says Stefan-M. Pulst, MD, professor and chair of the department of neurology, at the University of Utah, and co-author on this study. "Using the Utah Population Database, we were able to explore the association of PD with different types of cancer by studying cancer risk in individuals with PD, as well as their close and distant relatives".........

Posted by: Daniel      Read more         Source


April 3, 2011, 9:03 AM CT

Heart drug cuts prostate cancer risk

Heart drug cuts prostate cancer risk
Johns Hopkins researchers and their colleagues paired laboratory and epidemiologic data to find that men using the cardiac drug, digoxin, had a 24 percent lower risk for prostate cancer. The researchers say further research about the discovery may lead to use of the drug, or new ones that work the same way, to treat the cancer.

Digoxin, made from the foxglove plant, has been used for centuries in folk medicine and for decades to treat congestive heart failure and heart rhythm abnormalities. It also emerged as a leading candidate among 3,000 drugs screened by the Johns Hopkins team for the drugs' ability to curb prostate cancer cell growth, as per the investigators, who published their findings in the April 3 issue of Cancer Discovery

Additional research, by the team, in a cohort of more than 47,000 men revealed that those who took digoxin for heart disease had a significantly lower risk of prostate cancer. The researchers cautioned, however, that their work does not prove digoxin prevents prostate cancer nor are they suggesting the drug be used to prevent the disease. "This is not a drug you'd give to healthy people," says Elizabeth Platz, Sc.D., M.P.H., professor of epidemiology, oncology, and urology at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. Serious side effects include male breast enlargement and heart rhythm irregularities, and the drug usually causes nausea, vomiting and headache.........

Posted by: Mark      Read more         Source


March 13, 2011, 11:56 AM CT

Prostate cancer patients on ADT gain significant weight

Prostate cancer patients on ADT gain significant weight
Seventy per cent of men who received androgen-deprivation treatment (ADT) after surgery to remove their prostate gland gained significant weight in the first year, putting on an average of 4.2kg, as per a paper in the recent issue of the urology journal BJUI.

Scientists studied the recorded weights of 132 men who underwent radical prostatectomy between 1988 and 2009 at four US Veterans Affairs Medical Centers in California, Georgia and North Carolina, before and after they received ADT.

This showed that the majority of the men gained significant weight during the first year of treatment, but did not put on any more weight after that.

"ADT is a hormone treatment that deprives the patient's body of androgens, such as testosterone, which have been shown to stimulate the growth of prostate cancer cells" explains Dr Stephen J Freedland, from the Duke Prostate Center at Duke University School of Medicine and the Veteran Affairs Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina.

"Having been established as the mainstay therapy for recurrent or secondary prostate cancer, ADT is now being increasingly used to treat localised disease.

"This rising use of ADT makes it even more important that we pay close attention to the side-effects of the treatment, including weight gain, as obesity is linked with many chronic and potentially life-threatening health problems".........

Posted by: Mark      Read more         Source


January 16, 2011, 8:37 PM CT

MicroRNA suppresses prostate cancer stem cells

MicroRNA suppresses prostate cancer stem cells
Dean Tang, Ph.D. is a researcher at the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center.

Credit: The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center

A small slice of RNA inhibits prostate cancer metastasis by suppressing a surface protein usually found on prostate cancer stem cells. A research team led by researchers at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center reported today in an advance online publication at Nature Medicine

"Our findings are the first to profile a microRNA expression pattern in prostate cancer stem cells and also establish a strong rationale for developing the microRNA miR-34a as a new therapy option for prostate cancer," said senior author Dean Tang, Ph.D., professor in MD Anderson's Department of Molecular Carcinogenesis.

MicroRNAs, or miRNAs, are short, single-stranded bits of RNA that regulate the messenger RNA expressed by genes to create a protein.

Cancer stem cells are capable of self-renewal, have enhanced tumor-initiating ability and are generally more resistant to therapy than other cancer cells. They are linked to tumor recurrence and metastasis, the lethal spreading of cancer to other organs. These capacities are more prevalent in cancer cells that feature a specific cell surface protein called CD44, Tang said.

"CD44 has long been associated with promotion of tumor development and, especially, to cancer metastasis," Tang said. "A number of cancer stem cells overexpress this surface adhesion molecule. Another significant finding from our study is identifying CD44 itself as a direct and functional target of miR-34a".........

Posted by: Mark      Read more         Source


July 21, 2010, 6:11 AM CT

Key pathway in end-stage prostate cancer blocked

Key pathway in end-stage prostate cancer blocked
Prostate cancer advances when tumors become resistant to hormone treatment, which is the standard therapy for patients, and begin producing their own androgens.

Scientists at UT Southwestern Medical Center have observed that blocking one of the enzymatic steps that allow the tumor to produce androgens could be the key in halting a tumor's growth.

The findings, appearing online and in the recent issue of Endocrinology, suggest that this step might one day provide a new avenue of treatment for patients with end-stage prostate cancer. Health care experts estimate that more than 2 million men in the U.S. have prostate cancer, with more than 27,000 deaths correlation to the disease in 2009.

"We were able to block the androgen response, which is a central pathway for tumor progression," said Dr. Nima Sharifi, assistant professor of internal medicine and the study's senior author.

End-stage prostate tumors typically are treated with hormones that suppress the levels of the androgens, or male hormones like testosterone, that cause prostate cancer cells to grow. Eventually, however, the tumors become resistant to this treatment and resume their growth.

Using prostate cancer cell lines, Dr. Sharifi and colleagues observed that the hormone dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is converted by the tumors into androgens. By blocking the enzyme 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3βHSD), which is responsible for the first enzymatic step that is mandatory to convert DHEA to androgens, scientists were able to shut down the tumors' lifeline.........

Posted by: Mark      Read more         Source


July 13, 2010, 7:23 AM CT

How prostate cancer packs a punch

How prostate cancer packs a punch
Some types of prostate tumors are more aggressive and more likely to metastasize than others. Nearly one-third of these aggressive tumors contain a small nest of particularly dangerous cells known as neuroendocrine-type cells. More rarely, some aggressive prostate tumors are made up entirely of neuroendocrine-type cells. The presence of neuroendocrine-type cancer cells is linked to a poor prognosis, but spotting these rare cells can be like finding a needle in a haystack. Now, as per a research findings reported in the July 13 issue of Cancer Cell, a team of researchers led by Ze'ev Ronai, Ph.D. at Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute (Sanford-Burnham) has identified a series of proteins that might make it easier for doctors to better diagnose the more metastatic forms of prostate cancer.

"In identifying this protein pathway, which determines the formation of neuroendocrine tumors, we've identified new markers that can be used to distinguish the dangerous cells and find new targets for treatment," said Dr. Ronai, associate director of Sanford-Burnham's National Cancer Institute-designated Cancer Center.

This study uncovers a protein named Siah2, which initiates a cascade of molecular events that turns a non-cancerous tumor into a metastatic neuroendocrine tumor. In collaboration with four other medical centers across the United States, Dr. Ronai and colleagues analyzed human prostate cancer samples and observed that Siah2 and the other proteins it triggers is detected more often in the aggressive neuroendocrine forms of prostate tumors than in other types. By acting as markers for especially aggressive prostate cancers, Siah2 and its partners could provide doctors with an early warning sign for tumors that are likely to metastasize.........

Posted by: Mark      Read more         Source


July 9, 2010, 6:57 AM CT

What's your baseline PSA?

What's your baseline PSA?
Normal prostate anatomy
Men who have a baseline PSA value of 10 or higher the first time they are tested are up to 11 times more likely to die from prostate cancer than are men with lower initial values, as per Duke University Medical Center researchers.

Researchers say the finding, appearing early online in the journal Cancer, supports routine, early prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening among healthy men with normal life expectancy a practice several studies have recently questioned.

"There has been some controversy over the value of PSA screening beginning at age 40, but the data from this study strongly suggests that early screening can help us stratify patients' risk and identify those who need to be followed most closely from this younger age group. That, in turn, may help save lives," says Judd W. Moul, MD, Professor of Urologic Surgery and Director of the Duke Prostate Center and senior author of the paper.

Scientists used the Duke Prostate Center database to identify 4,568 men who had PSA tests during the past 20 years and who were diagnosed with prostate cancer. Investigators tracked the patients' age and race and analyzed each variable to assess any association with risk of death from prostate cancer or other causes.

The median age of the men at baseline was 65. The median baseline PSA was 4.5, and the average follow-up period was over nine years. Scientists observed that 3.5 percent of the men died from prostate cancer during the study period, while more than 20 percent died from other causes.........

Posted by: Mark      Read more         Source


June 9, 2010, 11:18 PM CT

Polyphenols in red wine and green

Polyphenols in red wine and green
In what could lead to a major advance in the therapy of prostate cancer, researchers now know exactly why polyphenols in red wine and green tea inhibit cancer growth. This new discovery, published online in The FASEB Journal (http://www.fasebj.org), explains how antioxidants in red wine and green tea produce a combined effect to disrupt an important cell signaling pathway necessary for prostate cancer growth. This finding is important because it may lead to the development of drugs that could stop or slow cancer progression, or improve current therapys.

"Not only does SphK1/S1P signaling pathway play a role in prostate cancer, but it also plays a role in other cancers, such as colon cancer, breast cancer, and gastric cancers," said Gerald Weissmann, MD, editor-in-chief of The FASEB Journal "Even if future studies show that drinking red wine and green tea isn't as effective in humans as we hope, knowing that the compounds in those drinks disrupts this pathway is an important step toward developing drugs that hit the same target".

Researchers conducted in vitro experiments which showed that the inhibition of the sphingosine kinase-1/sphingosine 1-phosphate (SphK1/S1P) pathway was essential for green tea and wine polyphenols to kill prostate cancer cells. Next, mice genetically altered to develop a human prostate cancer tumor were either treated or not treated with green tea and wine polyphenols. The treated mice showed reduced tumor growth as a result of the inhibited SphK1/S1P pathway. To mimic the preventive effects of polyphenols, another experiment used three groups of mice given drinking water, drinking water with a green tea compound known as EGCg, or drinking water with a different green tea compound, polyphenon E. Human prostate cancer cells were implanted in the mice and results showed a dramatic decrease in tumor size in the mice drinking the EGCg or polyphenon E mixtures.........

Posted by: Mark      Read more         Source


June 9, 2010, 6:42 AM CT

Surgery in men with low-risk prostate cancer

Surgery in men with low-risk prostate cancer
Johns Hopkins experts have found that men enrolled in an active surveillance program for prostate cancer that eventually needed surgery to remove their prostates fared just as well as men who opted to remove the gland immediately, except if a follow-up biopsy during surveillance showed high-grade cancer.

Active surveillance, or "watchful waiting," is an option open to men whose tumors are considered small, low-grade and at low risk of being lethal. Given the potential complications of prostate surgery and likelihood that certain low-risk tumors do not require treatment, some men opt to enroll in active surveillance programs to monitor PSA levels and receive annual biopsies to detect cellular changes that signal a higher grade, more aggressive cancer for which treatment is recommended. Yet, according to the Johns Hopkins experts, there is concern that delaying surgery in this group until biopsy results worsen may result in cancers that are more lethal and difficult to cure.

Bruce Trock, Ph.D., associate professor at the Johns Hopkins Brady Urological Institute, and his colleagues compared the pathology results of men in an active surveillance group at Johns Hopkins who later had surgery with those who also had low-risk tumors and opted for immediate surgery.........

Posted by: Mark      Read more         Source


April 2, 2010, 7:14 AM CT

Study could improve treatments for prostate cancer

Study could improve treatments for prostate cancer
Van Andel Research Institute (VARI) researchers have determined how two proteins mandatory for the initiation and development of prostate cancer interact at the molecular level, which could lead to improved therapys for the disease.

One of the proteins, androgen receptor, is already an important drug target for prostate cancer. The other, steroid receptor coactivator-3 (SRC3), was originally identified for its role in the development of breast cancer. SCR3 has also been characterized as a key factor in the development of prostate cancer, but, until now, the exact relationship between androgen receptor and SCR3 has been unclear.

Understanding the relationship between these two proteins, and targeting this interaction, could lead to new, more effective therapys for prostate cancer, the most common form of cancer in men, with more than 192,000 new cases and more than 27,000 deaths published in the United States in 2009 (Source: National Cancer Institute).

"Anti-androgen therapies become less effective over time," said VARI Distinguished Scientific Investigator H. Eric Xu, Ph.D., whose laboratory published the findings recently in the Journal of Biological Chemistry, where it was named Paper of the Week by the journal. "To develop the next generation of prostate cancer therapys, we need to find ways to disrupt the interaction between androgen receptor and the molecules it depends on to work, such as SRC3".........

Posted by: Mark      Read more         Source


February 9, 2010, 9:05 AM CT

Lower detection of prostate cancer with PSA screening in US

Lower detection of prostate cancer with PSA screening in US
Fewer prostate cancers were detected by prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening in the U.S. than in a European randomized trial because of lower screening sensitivity, as per a new brief communication published online February 8 in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute

To compare the PSA screening performance in a clinical trial with that in a population setting, Elisabeth M. Wever, MSc, Department of Public Health, Erasmus Medical Center, the Netherlands, and his colleagues applied a microsimulation model developed for prostate cancer and screening to the European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer (ERSPC)Rotterdam. The model was adapted by replacing the trial's demography parameters with U.S.-specific ones and the screening protocol with the frequency of PSA tests in the population. The natural progression of prostate cancer and the sensitivity (percentage of men correctly identified as having prostate cancer of those who have preclinical prostate cancer) of a PSA test followed by a biopsy were assumed to be the same in the US as in the trial.

The prostate cancer incidence predicted by the model in the U.S. was substantially higher than the actual prostate cancer incidence. However, the actual incidence was reproduced by assuming a substantially lower PSA test sensitivity in the U.S. than in ERSPCRotterdam.........

Posted by: Mark      Read more         Source


February 3, 2010, 8:08 AM CT

How some prostate cancer cells become more aggressive?

How some prostate cancer cells become more aggressive?
UT Southwestern researchers, including Crystal Gore, Dr. Jer-Tsong Hsieh (center) and Dr. Daxing Xie, have shown that prostate cancer cells are more likely to spread to other parts of the body if a specific gene quits functioning normally.
Prostate cancer cells are more likely to spread to other parts of the body if a specific gene quits functioning normally, as per new data from scientists at UT Southwestern Medical Center.

Certain prostate cancer cells can be held in check by the DAB2IP gene. The gene's product, the DABIP protein, acts as scaffolding that prevents a number of other proteins involved in the progression of prostate cancer cells from over-activation. When those cells lose the DAB2IP protein, however, they break free and are able to metastasize, or spread, drastically increasing the risk of cancer progression in other organs as the cells travel through the bloodstream or lymph system.

The study in mice, reported in the Jan. 11 issue of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, observed that eliminating the DAB2IP scaffolding in human carcinoma cells caused them to change from epithelial cells to mesenchymal cells - a hallmark of metastatic cancer.

Cells undergoing an epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) experience biological changes that enable them to move freely and spontaneously throughout the body," said Dr. Jer-Tsong Hsieh, director of the Jean H. & John T. Walker Jr. Center for Research in Urologic Oncology at.

UT Southwestern and the study's senior author. "By restoring DAB2IP function in cancer cells in mice, we reversed their ability to change and metastasize".........

Posted by: Mark      Read more         Source


January 25, 2010, 7:57 AM CT

Prostate cancer is treated differently

Prostate cancer is treated differently
Scientists at Moores Cancer Center at the University of California, San Diego and his colleagues have observed that prostate cancer therapys varied significantly between county hospitals and private providers. Patients treated in county hospitals are more likely to undergo surgery while patients treated in private facilities tend to receive radiation or hormone treatment. These findings were published online by the journal Cancer on January 25.

"The study examined the factors that drive therapy choices for prostate cancer patients" said J. Kellogg Parsons, MD, MHS, principal investigator and urologic oncologist at Moores UCSD Cancer Center. "We observed that decisions are significantly influenced by the type of health care facility where they receive care".

Surgery, radiation and hormone treatment are the most common therapys for localized prostate cancer. Each is linked to different risks and benefits with no consensus as to the most effective form of therapy, though life expectancy, other illnesses, cancer severity and patient preferences may account in part for therapy choices. Parsons and his colleagues at UCLA compared the types of therapys patients with prostate cancer received from public and private hospitals as part of a California public assistance program. The scientists analyzed the care provided to 559 men enrolled in a state-funded program for low-income patients known as Improving Access, Counseling and Treatment for Californians with Prostate Cancer (IMPACT).........

Posted by: Mark      Read more         Source


November 9, 2009, 8:22 AM CT

Prostate biopsy is not always necessary

Prostate biopsy is not always necessary
Scientists at Wake Forest University School of Medicine and the University of Wisconsin-Madison have discovered that some elevated prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels in men appears to be caused by a hormone normally occurring in the body, and are not necessarily a predictor of the need for a prostate biopsy.

Elevated levels of PSA have traditionally been seen as a potential sign of prostate cancer, leading to the widespread use of PSA testing. However, the scientists observed that parathyroid hormone, a substance the body produces to regulate calcium in the blood, can elevate prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels in healthy men who do not have prostate cancer. These "non-cancer" elevations in PSA could cause a number of men to be biopsied unnecessarily, which often leads to unnecessary therapy.

"PSA picks up any prostate activity, not just cancer," said lead investigator Gary G. Schwartz, Ph.D., M.P.H., an associate professor of cancer biology and epidemiology and prevention at the School of Medicine. "Inflammation and other factors can elevate PSA levels. If the levels are elevated, the man is commonly sent for a biopsy. The problem is that, as men age, they often develop microscopic cancers in the prostate that are clinically insignificant. If it weren't for the biopsy, these clinically insignificant cancers, which would never develop into fatal prostate cancer, would never be seen".........

Posted by: Mark      Read more         Source


November 4, 2009, 8:13 AM CT

Size and shape of the blood vessels predict prostate cancer behavior

Size and shape of the blood vessels predict prostate cancer behavior
A diagnosis of prostate cancer raises the question for patients and their physicians as to how the tumor will behave. Will it grow quickly and aggressively and require continuous therapy, or slowly, allowing treatment and its risks to be safely delayed?

The answer may lie in the size and shape of the blood vessels that are visible within the cancer, as per research led by researchers at The Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center-Arthur G. James Cancer Hospital and Richard J. Solove Research Institute in collaboration with the Harvard School of Public Health.

The study of 572 men with localized prostate cancer indicates that aggressive or lethal prostate cancers tend to have blood vessels that are small, irregular and primitive in cross-section, while slow-growing or indolent tumors have blood vessels that look more normal.

The findings were published Oct. 26 in the Journal of Clinical Oncology

"It's as if aggressive prostate cancers are growing faster and their blood vessels never fully mature," says study leader Dr. Steven Clinton, professor of medicine and a medical oncologist and prostate cancer specialist at Ohio State's Comprehensive Cancer Center-James Cancer Hospital and Solove Research Institute.

"Prostate cancer is very heterogeneous, and we need better tools to predict whether a patient has a prostate cancer that is aggressive, fairly average or indolent in its behavior so that we can better define a course of therapy surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, hormonal treatment, or potentially new drugs that target blood vessels that is specific for each person's type of cancer," Clinton says.........

Posted by: Mark      Read more         Source


October 20, 2009, 10:01 PM CT

Call to reconsider screening for breast cancer and prostate cancer

Call to reconsider screening for breast cancer and prostate cancer
Laura Esserman, MD, MBA
Twenty years of screening for breast and prostate cancer - the most diagnosed cancer for women and men - have not brought the anticipated decline in deaths from these diseases, argue experts from the University of California, San Francisco and the University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio in an opinion piece reported in the "Journal of the American Medical Association".

Instead, overall cancer rates are higher, a number of more patients are being treated, and the occurence rate of aggressive or later-stage disease has not been significantly decreased, the authors conclude. Current screening programs are leading to "potential tumor over-detection and over-treatment," they write in the Oct. 21, 2009 issue of JAMA.

"Screening does provide some benefit, but the problem is that the benefit is not nearly as much as we hoped and comes at the cost of over-diagnosis and over-treatment," said Laura Esserman, MD, MBA, professor of surgery and radiology, director of the UCSF Carol Franc Buck Breast Care Center, and co-leader of the breast oncology program at the UCSF Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center.

"We need to focus on developing new tools to identify men and women at risk for the most aggressive cancers, to identify at the time of diagnosis those who have indolent or 'idle' tumors that are not life-threatening," she added. "If we can identify groups of patients that don't need much therapy, or don't need to be screened, wouldn't that be great? Screening is by no means perfect. We should want to make it better. For both breast and prostate cancer we need to invest in changing our focus from the cancers that won't kill people to the ones that do".........

Posted by: Janet      Read more         Source

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Prostate cancer
The prostate is located just below the bladder and in front of the rectum in male. The tube that carries urine runs through the prostate. The prostate contains cells that make some of the seminal fluid. This fluid protects and nourishes the sperm. Prostate cancer usually starts in the gland cells of the prostate. This kind of cancer is known as adenocarcinoma. Prostate cancer is usually a slow disease, but sometimes it can grow fast and spread quickly to other organs.

Medicineworld.org: Prostate cancer blog

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