Colon Cancer Blog :from Medicineworld.org
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Researchers analyzed data from a comprehensive nationally representative sample of patients using the 1997-2003 National Health Interview Survey. Of the 226,953 patients in the study, 5.9 percent had a history of diabetes. Researchers controlled for age, race, gender, obesity, alcohol use, tobacco use, and physical activity. Adjusting for potentially confounding factors, researchers found that people with diabetes were 1.4 times more likely to have colon cancer as individuals without diabetes.
"This work is important because it suggests that people with diabetes may be at higher risk of colon cancer. Until we know for sure, diabetics should pay particular attention to their doctor's recommendations for colorectal screening," said Donald Garrow, M.D. one of the investigators.
This may be the reason for you to take that extra cup of coffee this morning. German researchers say they've found a highly active compound, called methylpyridinium, in coffee that may prevent colon cancer. In studies with animals, this potent antioxidant compound appears to boost the activity of phase II enzymes, which are believed to protect against colon cancer.
This study appear in the Nov. 5 issue of the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry.
Scientists have suspected for years that coffee may offer some cancer protection. This is the first study that's identified a specific, highly active anticancer compound in coffee.
"Until human studies are done, no one knows exactly how much coffee is needed to have a protective effect against colon cancer," study co-leader Thomas Hofman, professor and head of the Institute for Food Chemistry at the University of Munster, says in a prepared statement.
"However, our studies suggest that drinking coffee may offer some protection, especially if it's strong," Hofman says.
He notes that espresso-type coffee contains about two to three times more of the anticancer compound than a medium roast coffee.
Methylpyridinium is found almost exclusively in coffee and coffee products. It's not present in raw coffee beans. It's formed during the roasting process from its chemical precursor, trigonellin. The anticancer compound is present in both caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee and is even found in instant coffee.
Dr. Cullen and associates used data from a cancer prevention trial to investigate the risk of colorectal cancer among nearly 4000 men. These patients were put into two subgroups, one with history of exposure to asbestos and the other without any history of exposure. The researchers have found that men in the asbestos exposed group were 36 percent more likely to develop colorectal cancer compared to those who were not exposed to asbestos.
The researchers have published their finding in the recent issue of American Journal of Epidemiology. Persons who had heavy exposure to asbestos had even higher risk of developing colorectal cancer. People with 21 to 30 years of exposure to asbestos had a 74 percent increased risk of colorectal cancer compared with those with less than 10 years of exposure. The age at first exposure to asbestos was not predictive of the risk of colorectal cancer.
Researchers are recommending aggressive screening for colorectal cancer in those who have exposure to asbestos.
Pro-Pharmaceuticals is going to launch a new clinical trial for patients with advanced stage colorectal cancer using their drug Davanat. The company has announced that, European regulators had approved the trial, which is expected to begin in early 2006.
Pro-Pharmaceuticals will be testing Davanat in combination with another drug in a Phase III clinical trial. Patients who had at least one prior treatment would be eligible for this study. Researchers are hoping the drug prolongs survival by halting the cancer's progression.
Recently, Pro-Pharmaceuticals announced that Davanat showed promise in helping to improve chemotherapy treatments in a separate, early-stage human clinical trial.
Davanat is a proprietary polysaccharide in a Carbosome formation that target delivers chemotherapy drugs to protein receptors (lectins) that are specific to cancer cells.
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According to Dr. Zisman, "Understanding interactions between genetic and environmental factors, such as smoking and alcohol use, is critical for colorectal cancer risk stratification, and will help us design effective screening strategies."
Dr. Zisman and her colleagues looked at women's susceptibility compared to men. They found that while age of onset of colorectal cancer was slightly younger in males than females in the non-smoking/non-drinking group, current smokers had a markedly decreased age of presentation for both men and women.
Similarly, alcohol use was associated with an earlier age of diagnosis in males and females. "While both men and women who use tobacco and alcohol are diagnosed with colorectal cancer at an earlier age, the effect of tobacco is significantly greater in women," said Dr. Zisman.
Dr Chris IR Gill, one of the researchers, explained: "Because the colon is one of the major cancer sites thought to be protected by olive oil, the UU research team studied the potential anti-cancer effects of virgin olive chemical compounds in cultured cell lines widely used as models for colorectal cancer.
"We found that incubation of one cancer cell line with increasing concentrations of olive oil phenols for 24 hours protected the cells from DNA damage. The effect of olive oil phenols on another cell line after 48 hours of exposure suggested that they 'may exert an anti-promoter effect in the carcinogenesis pathway'.
"While the findings are purely of an experimental nature, they identify mechanisms that support the scientific and medical evidence suggesting an association between olive oil consumption and decreased risk of cancer.
"The research shows that the effect is not only related to the types of fat present in the oil but also the phenolic compounds present. The next stage is to assess the effects in a suitable animal model."
The findings will be published in this month's International Journal of Cancer.
Researchers used Indivumed's highly standardized biobank to detect elevated levels of mutated adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene in the plasma of patients with advanced stage colorectal cancers. This gene mutation was also visible in more than 60 percent of patients with early stage cancers.
Since there is no good test other than invasive colonoscopy to detect early stage colon cancer, this test, which is non-invasive may be used as the foundation for a new type of screening tool for general population who do not have any symptoms related to colorectal cancer.
Adventrx Pharmaceuticals, Inc. has presented positive pre-clinical data from a study with CoFactor in a colorectal cancer model at the American Association for Cancer Research (AACR) special conference in cancer research.
The study suggests that CoFactor in combination with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and oxaliplatin may be an effective chemotherapeutic regimen against colorectal cancer with higher efficacy and lower toxicity than the equivalent 5-FU, oxaliplatin and leucovorin regimen, informs a company release.
Adventrx's director of preclinical programmes Mark J. Cantwell and chief technical officer Joan M. Robbins, co-authored the study titled, "5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate enhances anti tumour activity and reduces toxicity of 5-Fluorouracil plus oxaliplatin combination therapy in a colorectal cancer xenograph model."
"While combination therapy with 5-FU, leucovorin and oxaliplatin has shown improved clinical efficacy in treating colorectal cancer compared with 5-FU and leucovorin, optimum efficacy with oxaliplatin combination therapy might not be achieved in this combination due to multiple factors. CoFactor has already demonstrated anti tumour activity with an apparent safer toxicity profile in combination with 5-FU in Phase I and Phase II clinical trials in treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer," said Dr. Cantwell.
These findings are from Dr. Jennifer Elston Lafata and colleagues at the Henry Ford Health System in Detroit, who have published their findings from their study in the recent issue of journal 'Cancer'.
These investigators have found that of all patients for whom the screening would be recommended only 54 percent actually received the recommended screening procedure during the study period. The most commonly used screening procedure was colonoscopy, performed on 39.9 percent of screened patients, followed by flexible sigmoidoscopy alone or in combination with fecal occult blood testing.
The researchers however noted an increase in trend towards screening. Between 1999 and 2003, annual screening rates increased by 3.1 percent. The authors suggest that all efforts should be done to improve the colorectal cancer screening rates.
To increase colorectal cancer screening rates, tests that are more acceptable to patients should be developed as per Lafata. "The other part is to make sure that patients who are eligible for screening get a recommendation from their primary care physician" she said.
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A study by Heitman and colleagues from Canada compares the costs and effectiveness of CT colonography to the conventional colonoscopy for screening. They found that screening 100 000 patients with CT colonography would cost $2.3 million more (in Canadian dollars) than with colonoscopy, and would avoid 3.8 fatal perforations, but at the same time, this method would lead to 4.1 cancer-related deaths from polyps not seen with CT, which would later become malignant. (Colonoscopy is slightly more sensitive than CT colonography, and could be expected to detect a certain number of polyps that the CT method would miss.)
New technologies are always attractive. Because CT colonography does not physically invade the body, it has even more appeal, it is easier for patients to accept. Its cost, however, is much higher, and its benefit (in terms of years of living that are gained) is only slightly lower than when colonoscopy is used.
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Colorectal cancer is a malignant tumor that arises from the inner wall of the large intestine or rectum. Colorectal cancer is the third commonest cancer diagnosed in the United States. Each year over 100,000 people are diagnosed with colorectal cancer in the United States. Most, of these cancers develop from growths in the colon called polyps. Removal of these polyps can prevent colon cancer.
Colon Cancer Blog :from Medicineworld.org
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