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July 18, 2011, 8:21 AM CT

Trastuzumab and chemotherapy improves survival

Trastuzumab and chemotherapy improves survival

The use of trastuzumab, chemotherapy and surgery among women with HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer significantly improved survival from the time central nervous system metastases were diagnosed.

Based on these study results, lead researcher Adam Brufsky, M.D., Ph.D., said, "We clearly now know that these women should get trastuzumab and potentially chemotherapy, even if cancer spreads to the brain."

"Women with HER2-positive breast cancer have a reasonable chance of living a long time with their disease, and they should be given aggressive treatment where appropriate," added Brufsky, professor of medicine and associate director of clinical investigation at the University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute.

Ten to 16 percent of women with advanced breast cancer develop central nervous system metastases, the scientists wrote in their study, published in Clinical Cancer Research, a journal of the American Association for Cancer Research.

Brufsky and his colleagues used data from the registHER study to evaluate the incidence, potential risk factors and outcomes for patients with HER2-positive breast cancer. They reviewed how patients with HER2-positive breast cancer develop brain metastases, and followed them to examine what happens thereafter.........

Posted by: Janet      Read more         Source


June 2, 2011, 8:06 AM CT

Women with BRCA mutations can take hormone-replacement therapy

Women with BRCA mutations can take hormone-replacement therapy
Women with the BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene mutations, which are associated with a very high risk of breast and ovary cancer, can safely take hormone-replacement treatment (HRT) to mitigate menopausal symptoms after surgical removal of their ovaries, as per new research from the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania which will be presented Monday, June 6 during the American Society for Clinical Oncology's annual meeting (Abstract #1501). Results of the prospective study indicated that women with BRCA mutations who had their ovaries removed and took short-term HRT had a decrease in the risk of developing breast cancer.

Research has shown that in women who carry the BRCA mutations, the single most powerful risk-reduction strategy is to have their ovaries surgically removed by their mid-30s or early 40s. The decrease in cancer risk from ovary removal comes at the cost of early menopause and menopausal symptoms including hot flashes, mood swings, sleep disturbances and vaginal dryness � quality-of-life issues that may cause some women to delay or avoid the procedure.

"Women with BRCA1/2 mutations should have their ovaries removed following child-bearing because this is the single best intervention to improve survival," says main author Susan M. Domchek, MD, an associate professor in the division of Hematology-Oncology and director of the Cancer Risk Assessment Program at Penn's Abramson Cancer Center. "It is unfortunate to have women choose not to have this surgery because they are worried about menopausal symptoms and are told they can't take HRT. Our data say that is not the case � these drugs do not increase their risk of breast cancer".........

Posted by: Janet      Read more         Source


May 19, 2011, 8:54 AM CT

Recurring breast cancer

Recurring breast cancer
When women with a history of breast cancer learn they have breast cancer again, one of the first questions they and their doctors ask is: Has my cancer come back, or is this a new case? Now, new data from Fox Chase Cancer Center suggest that both new and recurring cancers will differ significantly from the original tumors, regardless of how a number of months or years women spent cancer-free, and doctors should tailor therapy to the specific qualities of the second tumor, regardless of whether it's old or new.

Anita Patt, MD, surgical oncology fellow at Fox Chase and main author on the study, will be presenting the findings at the 2011 Annual Meeting of the American Society of Clinical Oncology on Monday, June 6.

"There tends to be a stigma and a lot of anxiety about the word 'recurrence,'" says Richard J. Bleicher, MD, FACS, attending surgeon at Fox Chase and senior author on the study. "Sometimes women will worry more if they believe their original cancer is back, meaning they didn't 'beat it' the first time around. These findings suggest they should not get hung up on that idea, because any subsequent diagnosis � whether it's a recurrence or a new tumor � will look significantly different from their first cancer".

In women with a history of breast cancer, doctors often approach new tumors differently depending on whether they believe it's a recurrence of the first tumor, or a totally new one, Bleicher explains. But there are no official ways to distinguish between the two types, so doctors typically rely on a few criteria, then form their own opinion based on an "overall gestalt," he says.........

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April 29, 2011, 8:34 AM CT

Interval post-treatment mammogram not needed

Interval post-treatment mammogram not needed
An annual mammogram is sufficient follow-up after breast conserving treatment (BCT) for patients with breast cancer, as per a research studypresented today, at the Cancer Imaging and Radiation Therapy Symposium in Atlanta. This symposium is co-sponsored by the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) and Radiological Society of North America (RSNA).

In this study, scientists wanted to determine the clinical relevance and utility of an interval mammogram (IM) after BCT. BCT is when a patient is treated with a lumpectomy and radiation rather than a mastectomy for early-stage breast cancer.

As per the study, annual mammograms are frequently conducted after BCT; however, some radiologists recommend an IM to take place at six months after the first post-treatment mammogram (five months after the completion of radiation therapy on average) to ensure stability, to check for recurrence or to check for any new cancers.

For this trial, 88 out of 467 BCT patients from Abington Memorial Hospital in Abington, Pa., received an IM. The IM led to four biopsies that yielded no recurring or new breast cancers. Patients returned to receiving their annual mammograms after receiving the IM.

Scientists determined that eliminating the IM would result in lower health care costs without a significant impact on the outcome of the patient.........

Posted by: Janet      Read more         Source


April 7, 2011, 8:38 AM CT

For Breast Cancer Patients Fatigue is Real

For Breast Cancer Patients Fatigue is Real
The persistent fatigue that plagues one out of every three breast cancer survivors appears to be caused by one part of the autonomic nervous system running in overdrive, while the other part fails to slow it down.

That imbalance of a natural system in the body appears associated with the tiredness and exhaustion that can burden cancer patients as much as a decade after their successful therapy.

The effect is so great, scientists say, that it appears to be a sign of accelerated aging in fatigued patients, causing them to seem as much as 20 years older compared with patients who aren't fatigued.

Those new research findings, just published in the journal Psychoneuroendocrinology, are the latest from a three-decade-long study of the impact that stress can have on the human body.

Christopher Fagundes, a postdoctoral fellow at Ohio State University's Institute of Behavioral Medicine Research (IBMR), and Janice Kiecolt-Glaser, a professor of psychiatry and psychology and a member of the IBMR, drew early data from a larger ongoing study testing whether yoga can combat continuing fatigue in patients with breast cancer.

They were looking for a new biomarker, a signal that could point to the initial cause of this fatigue. Their target was the autonomic nervous system, that part of the body that controls unconscious activities like breathing, heartbeat, digestion and such, which earlier research had indicated might play a role.........

Posted by: Janet      Read more         Source


April 3, 2011, 9:47 AM CT

DNA of 50 breast cancer patients decoded

DNA of 50 breast cancer patients decoded
In the single largest cancer genomics investigation reported to date, researchers have sequenced the whole genomes of tumors from 50 patients with breast cancer and compared them to the matched DNA of the same patients' healthy cells. This comparison allowed scientists to find mutations that only occurred in the cancer cells.

They uncovered incredible complexity in the cancer genomes, but also got a glimpse of new routes toward personalized medicine. The work was presented at the American Association for Cancer Research 102nd Annual Meeting 2011.

In all, the tumors had more than 1,700 mutations, most of which were unique to the individual, says Matthew J. Ellis, MD, PhD, professor of medicine at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis and a lead investigator on the project.

"Cancer genomes are extraordinarily complicated," Ellis says. "This explains our difficulty in predicting outcomes and finding new therapys".

To undertake the massive task, Washington University oncologists and pathologists at the Alvin J. Siteman Cancer Center at Barnes-Jewish Hospital and Washington University School of Medicine collaborated with the university's Genome Institute to sequence more than 10 trillion chemical bases of DNA � repeating the sequencing of each patient's tumor and healthy DNA about 30 times to ensure accurate data.........

Posted by: Janet      Read more         Source


April 3, 2011, 9:22 AM CT

Immune system may guide chemotherapy

Immune system may guide chemotherapy
ORLANDO, Fla. � A study published in Cancer Discovery, the newest journal of the American Association for Cancer Research, debuting here at the AACR 102nd Annual Meeting 2011, held April 2-6, showed how evaluating the immune response in the tumor microenvironment may help scientists better target treatment in breast cancer.

Scientists at the University of California, San Francisco, demonstrated that the level of macrophages and CD8+ T-cells, two key components of the human immune system, can help predict recurrence and overall survival. New biologic-targeted therapies impairing macrophage recruitment into tumors show promising results in preclinical studies.

"Phase I clinical trials are blunt instruments because their goal is often limited to determining a safe dose for a new drug," said Lisa Coussens, Ph.D., professor in the department of pathology at the University of California, San Francisco. "Using preclinical transgenic mouse models of cancer development, researchers cannot only help determine a safe dose for a new drug, but also identify biomarkers indicative of the biological response of the new drug. Identification of relevant biomarkers can then be translated to clinical studies and help to determine which patients are or are not responding to the drug".........

Posted by: Janet      Read more         Source


April 1, 2011, 7:54 AM CT

Stress, anxiety of aggressive breast cancer

Stress, anxiety of aggressive breast cancer
Dr. Georita M. Frierson
When an aggressive form of breast cancer strikes a young woman, what kind of stress, anxiety and other psychological and social challenges does she face?

That question hasn't been answered in the published psychological cancer literature, but a new pilot study just launched is gathering data to change that, as per psychology expert Georita M. Frierson at SMU.

The two-year study will survey up to 60 women recently diagnosed with an aggressive form of breast cancer that typically strikes younger women under 40, mostly African-American or Hispanic, or those who test positive for a mutation of the human gene that suppresses tumors, BRCA1.

Known as Triple Negative Breast Cancer, this unconventional subtype categorized as "nonhormonal" strikes 10 to 20 percent of women diagnosed with breast cancer.

The study is probing patients' stress, anxiety and concerns about the psychological and social hurdles they face, said Frierson, principal investigator. SMU is collaborating on the Triple Negative study with the University of Texas Southwestern Simmons Cancer Center, a National Cancer Institute-designated cancer center.

"We don't know anything about this population psychologically," said Frierson, an expert in behavioral health psychology and an assistant professor in the SMU Department of Psychology. "But based on this study, for any of their concerns we could tailor a psychological intervention to help other women like the women in my pilot. These women will be our pioneers in the psychological area to help their sisters that may have Triple Negative in the future".........

Posted by: Janet      Read more         Source


March 30, 2011, 7:15 AM CT

Attack breast cancer cells from the inside out

Attack breast cancer cells from the inside out
Throwing stones at castle walls is one way to attack an enemy, but sneaking inside makes the target much more vulnerable.

Scientists at Cedars-Sinai's Maxine Dunitz Neurosurgical Institute have employed a similar strategy using a mouse model to target important mechanisms inside the most challenging breast cancer cells. Earlier studies at Cedars-Sinai found a similar approach effective in attacking cancerous brain tumor targets.

Unlike other drugs that target cancer cells from outside and often injure normal cells as a side effect, this treatment consists of multiple drugs chemically bonded to a "transport vehicle." The drugs bypass healthy cells, accumulate inside tumor cells and attack molecular targets that enable cancer cells to grow and spread. Studies using a mouse model show this highly targeted approach, using combinations of drugs, to be more effective than standard therapy methods.

This research targeted HER2-positive breast cancer � a type that, due to a genetic mutation, makes excessive amounts of a protein that promotes the growth of cancer cells. HER2-positive breast cancers tend to be more aggressive and less responsive to therapy than other breast cancers.

One usually used antitumor drug, trastuzumab (Herceptin�), is sometimes beneficial, but with advantages and disadvantages. It is an antibody to the HER2 antigen, which means it naturally seeks out this protein in cancers. But its effectiveness as a therapy commonly is limited because in 66 to 88 percent of patients, the tumors become resistant within the first year of therapy. Herceptin also can injure normal organs it contacts.........

Posted by: Janet      Read more         Source


March 28, 2011, 7:05 AM CT

Some women worry too much about breast

Some women worry too much about breast
Most women face only a small risk of breast cancer coming back after they complete their therapy. Yet a newly released study from the University of Michigan Comprehensive Cancer Center finds that nearly half of Latinas who speak little English expressed a great deal of worry about recurrence.

"Some worry about cancer recurrence is understandable. But for some women, these worries can be so strong that they impact their therapy decisions, symptom reporting and screening behaviors, and overall quality of life," says study author Nancy K. Janz, Ph.D., professor of health behavior and health education at the U-M School of Public Health.

The scientists found substantial variation based on racial or ethnic background, with Latinas who speak primarily Spanish expressing the most worry and African-Americans expressing the least worry. For Latinas, the scientists considered acculturation, a measure of how much a person is integrated into American society. For Latinas, a significant factor is whether they speak primarily English or Spanish.

While 46 percent of Latinas who spoke primarily Spanish reported they worry "very much" about recurrence, that number drops to 25 percent for Latinas who speak primarily English, 14 percent for white women and 13 percent for African-Americans.........

Posted by: Janet      Read more         Source


March 13, 2011, 12:06 AM CT

DCIS patients who get invasive breast cancer

DCIS patients who get invasive breast cancer
Women with ductal carcinoma in situ�DCIS�who later develop invasive breast cancer in the same breast are at higher risk of dying from breast cancer than those who do not develop invasive disease, as per a research studypublished online March 11 in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute.

Retrospective studies of women with DCIS have compared breast conserving surgery (lumpectomy) to mastectomy and observed that survival rates are similar. However, women who have lumpectomy alone, without further therapy, are at higher risk of developing invasive breast cancer in the same breast. Whether women who develop invasive breast tumors after DCIS are also at higher risk of dying of breast cancer has not been clear.

To explore this question as well as the long-term effects of therapys aimed at avoiding invasive recurrence after lumpectomy, Irene Wapnir, M.D., of Stanford University School of Medicine, and James Dignam, PhD of University of Chicago looked at the long-term outcomes of patients with localized DCIS who took part in two large randomized trials, both carried out by the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project (NSABP). The B-17 trial compared lumpectomy alone to lumpectomy plus radiation treatment in women with DCIS. The B-24 trial compared lumpectomy plus radiation in combination with either tamoxifen or placebo.........

Posted by: Janet      Read more         Source


February 22, 2011, 7:35 AM CT

How many mammograms radiologists must read?

How many mammograms radiologists must read?
Radiologists who interpret more mammograms and spend some time reading diagnostic mammograms do better at determining which suspicious breast lesions are cancer, as per a new report published online on February 22 and in print in the recent issue of Radiology

In direct response to a report from the Institute of Medicine that called for more research on the relationship between interpretive volume and performance in screening mammography, the multi-site team undertook the largest and most comprehensive study of U.S. radiologists. The Institute of Medicine is the health arm of the National Academies, advisors to the nation on science, engineering, and medicine.

Funded largely through a unique collaboration between the American Cancer Society and the National Cancer Institute, the study examined information from 120 radiologists who interpreted 783,965 screening mammograms at six mammography registries in the Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium (BCSC) over five years. The scientists looked at how screening outcomes were correlation to four different measures of each radiologist's annual volume: the number of screening and diagnostic mammograms�separately and in combination�and the percentage of total mammograms that were for screening rather than diagnosis.........

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February 2, 2011, 7:41 AM CT

Painful hip fractures strike breast cancer survivors

Painful hip fractures strike breast cancer survivors
A hip fracture is not common in a 54-year-old woman, unless she is a 54-year-old breast cancer survivor, as per a new Northwestern Medicine study. Scientists observed that a combination of early menopause due to breast cancer therapy and common drugs used to treat breast cancer, could be weakening the bones of breast cancer survivors once they hit middle age, leading to hip fractures.

Results of the study are reported in the February 2011 issue of Clinical Cancer Research

Hip fractures are rare in people under 70. Yet, Northwestern Medicine doctor Beatrice Edwards, M.D., observed that several breast cancer survivors in their early 50s were coming to her for therapy of hip fractures.

Edwards is director of the Bone Health and Osteoporosis program and associate professor of medicine and of orthopaedic surgery at Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine. She also is a doctor at Northwestern Memorial Hospital and a member of the Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center of Northwestern University.

Scientists studied six of these women over one year and assessed the type of breast cancer they had, the therapy they underwent and a hip fracture's effect on quality of life, said Edwards, main author of the study.

"One year after the fracture the women still reported difficulty with climbing stairs, shopping and heavy housekeeping," Edwards said. "Their health care costs may increase and their fractures contribute to losing some independence".........

Posted by: Janet      Read more         Source


February 1, 2011, 7:46 AM CT

Repeat MRI screening for breast cancer

Repeat MRI screening for breast cancer
MRI screening for breast cancer delivers consistent rates of cancer detection and fewer false-positive results over time, as per a newly released study published online and in the April print edition of Radiology

While MRI can be more effective than mammography at identifying suspicious areas of the breast, it is not always able to distinguish between malignant and non-malignant lesions, which can result in additional testing and false-positive results that may cause anxiety for patients. A screening exam is considered to be false positive when its results recommend further testing or a biopsy of a suspicious finding, but no cancer is found.

"MRI is an excellent screening tool for breast cancer, but the higher rate of false-positive results keeps some women from undergoing the exam," said the study's co-author Martha B. Mainiero, M.D., director of the Anne C. Pappas Center for Breast Imaging at Rhode Island Hospital and associate professor of diagnostic imaging at The Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University in Providence, R.I. "The goal of our study was to determine if the availability of previous MR images for comparison reduces the rate of false positives linked to the initial MRI breast screening exam".

In the study, scientists evaluated reports from 650 consecutive screening MRI breast exams performed on women between September 2007 and December 2008 at Rhode Island Hospital. The women, who ranged in age from 25 to 81 years, were referred for MRI screening because they were considered to be at high risk for breast cancer.........

Posted by: Janet      Read more         Source


January 28, 2011, 7:14 AM CT

To better predict breast cancer outcomes

To better predict breast cancer outcomes
Scientists from McGill University's Rosalind and Morris Goodman Cancer Research Centre (GCRC), the Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre (RI MUHC), the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Harvard Medical School have discovered a gene signature that can accurately predict which patients with breast cancer are at risk of relapse, thereby sparing those who are not from the burdens linked to unnecessary therapy.

For years, clinicians have been faced with the problem that breast cancer cannot be treated with a one-size-fits-all approach. Some cancers respond to specific therapys while others do not. Close to 50 per cent of patients with breast cancer belong to a group - defined as "estrogen receptor positive/lymph node negative (ER+/LR-)"- that is at low risk of relapse. The majority of patients in this group may not require any therapy beyond the surgical removal of their tumour, while a small minority should receive additional therapy.

"The added information provided by our test would enable oncologists to identify those at very low risk of relapse, for whom the risk-benefit ratio might be in favour of withholding chemotherapy, and to identify patients in this low-risk group who would benefit from more aggressive therapys," explains Dr. Alain Nepveu, GCRC and RI MUHC researcher and co-author of the study. "Since a number of therapys are linked to short- and long-term complications including premature menopause, cardiotoxicity and the development of secondary cancers, risks must be balanced against the potential benefit for each patient to avoid unnecessary suffering, needless expense and added burdens on the health-care system".........

Posted by: Janet      Read more         Source


January 26, 2011, 6:57 AM CT

Hot flushes reduce breast cancer risk

Hot flushes reduce breast cancer risk
Women who have experienced hot flushes and other symptoms of menopause may have a 50 percent lower risk of developing the most common forms of breast cancer than postmenopausal women who have never had such symptoms, as per a recent study by scientists at Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center.

The results of the first study to examine the relationship between menopausal symptoms and breast cancer risk are available online ahead of the February print issue of Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention

The protective effect appeared to increase along with the number and severity of menopausal symptoms, as per senior author Christopher I. Li, M.D., Ph.D., a breast cancer epidemiologist in the Hutchinson Center's Public Health Sciences Division.

"In particular we observed that women who experienced more intense hot flushes � the kind that woke them up at night � had a especially low risk of breast cancer," he said.

Li and his colleagues suspected a link between menopause misery and decreased breast cancer risk because hormones such as estrogen and progesterone play an important role in the development of most breast cancers, and reductions in these hormones caused by gradual cessation of ovarian function can impact the frequency and severity of menopausal symptoms.........

Posted by: Janet      Read more         Source


January 25, 2011, 7:24 AM CT

'Engineered organ' model for breast cancer research

'Engineered organ' model for breast cancer research
Purdue researchers' new model for breast cancer research, called "breast on-a-chip," mimics the branching mammary duct system. (Purdue University/Leary laboratory - Reproduced by permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry)
Purdue University scientists have reproduced portions of the female breast in a tiny slide-sized model dubbed "breast on-a-chip" that will be used to test nanomedical approaches for the detection and therapy of breast cancer.

The model mimics the branching mammary duct system, where most breast cancers begin, and will serve as an "engineered organ" to study the use of nanoparticles to detect and target tumor cells within the ducts.

Sophie Lelièvre, associate professor of basic medical sciences in the School of Veterinary Medicine, and James Leary, SVM Professor of Nanomedicine and professor of basic medical sciences in the School of Veterinary Medicine and professor of biomedical engineering in the Weldon School of Biomedical Engineering, led the team.

Purdue team creates 'engineered organ' model for breast cancer research.

Januarty 20, 2011 Print Version.

Purdue researchers' new model for breast cancer research, called "breast on-a-chip," mimics the branching mammary duct system. (Purdue University/Leary laboratory - Reproduced by permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry).

Download image.

WEST LAFAYETTE, Ind. - Purdue University scientists have reproduced portions of the female breast in a tiny slide-sized model dubbed "breast on-a-chip" that will be used to test nanomedical approaches for the detection and therapy of breast cancer.........

Posted by: Janet      Read more         Source


January 11, 2011, 6:49 AM CT

Powerful biomarker panel for the early detection of breast cancer

Powerful biomarker panel for the early detection of breast cancer
In the war on cancer, perhaps there is nothing more powerful in a physician's arsenal than early detection. Despite recent advances in early detection and therapy, breast cancer remains a common and significant health problem in the United States and worldwide. Approximately one in ten women will get breast cancer in their lifetime and more than half of women with late stage cancer (II and III) have no cure or effective therapeutic available.

Using a new, powerful method for rapidly screening molecules linked to disease, proteomics expert Joshua LaBaer and his colleagues from the Biodesign Institute at Arizona State University have identified a broad panel of 28 early predictors, or biomarkers, that may one day aid in the early diagnosis of breast cancer.

"We do not have any available blood markers for breast cancer," said LaBaer, a Virginia G. Piper Chair in Personalized Medicine at ASU who directs the Center for Personalized Diagnostics at the Biodesign Institute. "Our hope is to combine a new type of blood test with mammography screening to aid in the early detection of breast cancer".

The findings represent the first demonstration of a custom protein array technology deployed to find biomarkers in patients with breast cancer before they were clinically diagnosed for cancer. These biomarkers were specific for patients with breast cancer and not in healthy women or women with a non-malignant form of breast disease.........

Posted by: Janet      Read more         Source


January 4, 2011, 7:02 AM CT

Peptide against Breast cancer

Peptide against Breast cancer
Scientists at Wake Forest University Baptist Medical Center (WFUBMC) have discovered what appears to become a new weapon in the fight against breast cancer. For the first time, a peptide found in blood and tissue has been shown to inhibit the growth of human breast tumors in mice, as per a research studyrecently reported in the journal Cancer Research.

Patricia E. Gallagher, Ph.D., and E. Ann Tallant, Ph.D., researchers in the High blood pressure and Vascular Research Center at WFUBMC, demonstrated that the peptide angiotensin-(1-7) attacked breast cancer in two ways: by inhibiting the growth of the breast cancer cells themselves and by inhibiting the growth of cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), cells found in the tumor microenvironment -- the tissue surrounding the tumor. CAFs play a vital role in tumor initiation, growth and metastases by providing structural support for the tumor cells and by producing growth factors that help the tumor cells grow.

In this study, mice were injected with human breast cancer cells to form the two most common types of breast tumors -- estrogen-receptor and HER2 sensitive. In women with breast cancer, an estimated 50 to 60 percent have estrogen-receptor sensitive tumors and 20 to 30 percent have HER2 sensitive tumors.

Once the tumors grew, the mice were injected with either angiotensin-(1-7) or saline for 18 days. In the mice treated with angiotensin-(1-7), there was a 40 percent reduction in tumor size as in comparison to the saline-injected mice, whose tumors grew three times their size at the initiation of therapy. Breast tumor fibrosis also was reduced by 64 to 75 percent in the mice treated with the peptide as in comparison to the saline-injected mice. Fibrosis is the thickening of the breast tissue around and within the tumor that acts as a scaffold to support the spread of cancer cells.........

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Breast cancer
Every year, more than 200,000 women are diagnosed with breast cancer in the United States. Breast cancer ranks second as the leading cause of cancer deaths in American women. Until recently breast cancer topped the list of leading causes of cancer deaths in women, but lately lung cancer has claimed the top position. If skin cancer is excluded, breast cancer is the commonest cancer among American women.

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